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BIO UNIT 1 & 2

Definitions pt 2

molecular biology the branch of biology that deals with the structure and function of the macro molecules (e.g. proteins and nucleic acids) essential to life.
carbohydrates the sugars, starches and fibers found in fruits, grains, vegetables and milk products
lipids a class of organic compounds that are fatty acids or their derivatives and are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents
protiens class of nitrogenous organic compounds that consist of large molecules composed of one or more long chains of amino acids and are an essential part of all living organisms, especially as structural components of body tissues
nucleic acids complex organic substance present in living cells, especially DNA or RNA, whose molecules consist of many nucleotides linked in a long chain
metabolism the chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life.
anabolism the synthesis of complex molecules in living organisms from simpler ones together with the storage of energy; constructive metabolism.
catabolism the breakdown of complex molecules in living organisms to form simpler ones, together with the release of energy; destructive metabolism.
monomer a molecule that can be bonded to other identical molecules to form a polymer.
polymer a substance that has a molecular structure consisting chiefly or entirely of a large number of similar units bonded together
synthesis the production of chemical compounds by reaction from simpler materials.
polar there is an uneven distribution of electron density
non-polar A molecule in which the electrons are shared equally between the nuclei
cohesion ticking together of alike molecules, such as water molecule being attracted to another water molecule
adhesion joining of two different substances due to attractive forces that hold them
high specific heat the amount of heat one gram of a substance must absorb or lose to change its temperature by one degree Celsius
high latent heat of vaporization amount of energy needed to change one gram of a liquid substance to a gas at constant temperature
hydrophilic having a tendency to mix with, dissolve in, or be wetted by water.
hydrophobic tending to repel or fail to mix with water.
condensation reaction A chemical reaction in which two molecules combine to form a larger molecule with the elimination of a small molecule
disaccharide any of a class of sugars whose molecules contain two monosaccharide residues.
polysaccharide carbohydrate whose molecules consist of a number of sugar molecules bonded together.
triglyceride an ester formed from glycerol and three fatty acid groups
unsaturated fat type of fat containing a high proportion of fatty acid molecules with at least one double bond, considered to be healthier in the diet than saturated fat
saturated fat type of fat containing a high proportion of fatty acid molecules without double bonds, considered to be less healthy in the diet than unsaturated fat
denaturation process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the quaternary structure, tertiary structure, and secondary structure
proteomes the entire complement of proteins that is or can be expressed by a cell, tissue, or organism.
genomes the haploid set of chromosomes in a gamete or microorganism, or in each cell of a multicellular organism.
enzymes a substance produced by a living organism which acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction.
active site a region on an enzyme that binds to a protein or other substance during a reaction.
substrate material or substance on which an enzyme act
immobilized enzymes the imprisonment of cell or enzyme in a distinct support or matrix. allows the exchange of medium containing substrate or effector or inhibitor molecules
replication biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule and occurs in all living organisms acting as the basis for biological inheritance
transcription first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA by the enzyme RNA polymerase
translation the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.
codon set of three adjacent nucleotides, also called triplet, in mRNA that base-pair with the corresponding anticodon of tRNA molecule that carries a particular amino acid, hence, specifying the type and sequence of amino acids for protein synthesis
anticodon A sequence of three adjacent nucleotides located on one end of transfer RNA
helicase An enzyme that utilizes energy from nucleoside triphosphate hydrolysis in order to unwind the two annealed nucleic acid strands
tRNA Transfer RNA. Small RNA molecules that carry amino acids to the ribosome for polymerization into a polypeptide
mRNA An RNA molecule transcribed from the DNA of a gene, and from which a protein is translated by the action of ribosomes
rRNA a molecular component of a ribosome, the cell's essential protein factory. Strictly speaking, ribosomal RNA (rRNA) does not make proteins. It makes polypeptides
DNA polymerase a type of enzyme that is responsible for forming new copies of DNA, in the form of nucleic acid molecules.
RNA polymerase an enzyme that is responsible for making rna from a dna template.
ATP the energy currency of life. ATP is a high-energy molecule found in every cell. Its job is to store and supply the cell with needed energy.
Created by: taeofl



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