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Env Toxicology

Unit 2

QuestionAnswer
What is a dose response assay? An experiment involving the exposure of living things to toxic chemicals.
What are three ways response can be measured? Moratality, morbidity, and inhibition.
Differentiate between a control and a controlled variable. A control is the expected/normal conditions. A controlled variable is kept the same for all the tests and mitigates confounding factors
What is the threshold response? The first observable response
What does NOEL stand for? No observable effect level
What does idiosyncratic mean? An odd response
What shape d dose response curves take? Sigmoidal
The steeper the curve, the ______ the response. faster
What are probits? Probits transform data via binomial distribution and allows for a linear equation
Examples of acute toxicity model organisms. Daphnia, microtox, fingerling trout, 3 spine stickle back
Examples of chronic toxicity model organisms Plants, duckweed, minnows, sea urchins
4 types of combination effects Additive Antagonistic Multiplicative Synergystic
Explain additive effects. The sum of individual effects where there is a similar mode of action.
Explain antagonistic effects. One chemical lessens the effects of the other.
Explain multiplicative effects. The product of two effects, where there is interaction evident.
Explain synergistic effects. The effects when combined are exceedingly harmful
On a dose response graph, will a more toxic combination be closer or further from the y axis? More toxic will be closer to y axis
How do you determine the exposure standard? Determine the NOEL. Apply a safety factor based on effects Divide NOEL by factor
What is epidemiology? The study of disease incidence, spread, and control within populations
What i s the goal of epidemiology? To discover a cause and effect, and eliminate confounding factors
What are some typical confounding factors? Age, gender, pre existing conditions
Different epidemiological studies Cross section longitudinal case controlled
Explain a cross section study A snapshot of health compared to past exposures
Explain a cross section study Keep track of a population
Explain a case controlled study Track a population known to be exposed and compare with a similar unaffected group
Created by: swilson67
 

 



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