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Biology Exam 1 SG

Biology 210 WSU

QuestionAnswer
Name the biological themes that will be encountered in this course? Mechanistic doctrine Cell theory Central Dogma of Biology Gene Theory of Inheritance Cellular Evolution
What is it about the mechanistic doctrine that makes biology the most interdisciplinary scientific discipline? It draws from all other natural sciences: chemistry, physics, astronomy, geology, mathematics, computer science
What are the 3 statements of the cell theory? All organisms are composed of cells All cells come from pre-existing cells Chemical reactions responsible for life take place within cells
In Crick's Central Dogma information can flow back and forth between 2 macromolecules bu only one way between the second and third. Name the information flow that is unidirectional. Reverse Transcription
Mendel proposed pairs of inherited factors that we now call genes. What is a current definition of a gene? Organismal characteristics determined by discrete segments of DNA; Regions of DNA that are transcribed into RNA
How many copies of each gene does a sexually reproducing organism usually have? 2
In this course we will study cells, organelles, macromolecules, monomeric components of macromolecules, and atoms. Can studying organelles help us understand better how cells work or how macromolecules work? No
What is the chemical definition of an element? A substance that can't be broken down into another substance by chemical reactions
Which 4 elements account for 96% of living matter? Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), Oxygen (O), and Nitrogen (N)
What is the smallest unit of an element that retains the chemical properties of that element? An atom
What does an atom lose to become positively charged? An electron
What does an atom gain to become negatively charged? An electron
What is a term to describe the outermost electrons of an atom? Valence eletrons
An atom is composed of a nucleus surrounded by electrons. Which part of the atom contains almost all the mass? The nucleus
Given an atom with 16 electrons, how may protons would be found in the nucleus? 16
There are 3 isotopes of the element carbon (C). 12C is the most common, 13C is a stable isotope, while 14C is an unstable, radioisotope. Which atomic mass is closest to the mass for carbon found in the periodic table? 13C
What is the predicted valence of an atom with 4 electrons in its outermost ring? 4
if the valence of a nitrogen atom is 3, how many covalent bonds can nitrogen typically form? 3
Name the 3 chemical bonds you have to know for this course. Covalent Ionic Hydrogen
Which chemical bond involves sharing pairs of electrons between atoms? Covalent
Which chemical bond results from partially positive and partially negative parts of a molecule interacting with partially negative or partially positive parts of another molecule? Hydrogen
Which chemical bond is the strongest? Covalent
Which chemical bond is the weakest? Hydrogen
What is the difference in energy between an ionic bond and a hydrogen bond? An ionic bond involves an atom taking an electron from another atom and one atom loses an electron. A hydrogen bond is when both atoms keep their electrons but uneven charge distrib. creates partial charges that attract weakly.
Which chemical bond results from the opposite charges of positive and negatively charged ions attracting one another? Ionic
When water molecules surround a negatively charged chloride ion (Cl), what portion of the molecule is oriented towards the ion? The Hydrogen parts
This recreational molecule, CH3-CH2-OH, is an example of what kind of functional group? Hydroxyl
What atom is at the center of a phophate molecule? Phosphorus
How many negative charges can be found in a phosphate group attached to a single ribose? 2
Name the four classes of macromolecules. Lipids Carbohydrates Proteins Nucleic Acids
Name the components of a phospholipid. 2 fatty acids, 1 glycerol, 1 phosphate, then 1 of serine, chlorine, ethanolamine, etc.
Phospholipids are amphipathic molecules. Which part of the molecule is hydrophillic and which part is hydrophobic? Glycerol and phosphate: hydrophillic Fatty acids: hydrophobic
In glucose and other hexoses, the hydroxyl group on carbon 1 can be either above or below the plane of the monosaccharide ring. Does this have a significant consequence in the structure of carbohydrates possessing one kind of glucose or the other? YES
Which glycosidic bond can enzymes in our body digest: glucose a-1-4 glucose or glucose b-1-4-glucose? glucose-a-1-4-glucose
Two cellulose molecules are side by side in a cellulose microfibril. What kind of bond holds them to together? Hydrogen bonds
Two starch molecules are side by side. Do any bonds hold them together? No, they do not interact.
What two organic molecules distinguish DNA from RNA? Oxygen
What organic base must Thymine pair with in nucleic acids? Adenine
What organic base must Guanine pair with in nucleic acids? Cytosine
What organic base must Cytosine pair with in nucleic acids? Guanine
What organic base must Adenine pair with in nucleic acids? Thymine (DNA) or Uracil (RNA)
What organic base muse Uracil pair with in nucleic acids? Adenine
Given the sequence UUCAGUUACGUCCAG, what nucleic acid does this represent? RNA
Given the sequence TTACGTATATCGGCC, what nucleic acid does this represent? DNA
What atom is missing from ribose to give deoxyribose? Oxygen
When we write nucleotide sequence from left to right, what end of the molecule is on the left? 5 Prime (5')
When we talk about the 5' end of a nucleotide sequence, what organic molecule possess a 5' carbon atom? Phosphate
Which nucleic acid is normally double stranded? DNA
What 3 functions of RNA mediate the "coordinate cellular activity" function of DNA? Transfer information from DNA to Protein Synth. Machinery Transfer amino acids to PSM Form peptide bonds
Given 2 DNA strands, all enzymes and deoxyribonucleotides necessary for DNA synthesis, what is lacking to initiate DNA synthesis? Priming by RNA or another structure
What bond forms when two sulfhydryl groups are oxidized? Disulfide bond
Electrons found closer to the nucleus of an atom have which, a higher or lower energy, than electrons found farther from the nucleus? Lower
When ribose is in a nucleotide, how are ribose carbon atoms renumbered? 1' , 2' , 3' , 4' , 5' (Prime numbering)
What are the four classic levels of protein structure? Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, Quaternary
Where does a protein domain fit into the classic hierarchical structure levels for proteins? Between Secondary and Tertiary levels
What kind of chemical bonds hold amino acids together to form a protein chain? Covalent bonds
What kind of bonds between backbone atoms are responsible for alpha helical and beta strand secondary structure? Hydrogen bonds
How many protein chains would you expect to find in a tertiary structure? 1
How many protein chains would you expect to find in a quaternary structure? 2 or more
What 2 functional groups are found in all amino acids? Amine and Carboxyl
What 2 functional groups are attached to the alpha carbon of all amino acids? Amine and Carboxyl
Given the sequence: APILQCMGCCFSRAYPTPLRSKKTMLVQ, identify the amino terminus and the carboxyterminus. A is the amino terminus (always the far left) and Q is the carboxyl terminus (always the far right)
The spacing of the 4 covalent bonds in carbon atoms results in carbon-containing, or organic, molecules having distinct shapes. What role does shape play in molecular recognition? Determines the function and what it will bond with along with how the 2 molecules will interact
Comparison of the properties of H2S and H2Te predict that H2O will be liquid over an 11 degree range. What property of H2O molecules is invoked to rationalize the 100 degree range for liquid water? Hydrogen bonds
Functional groups in amino acid side chains play what role in tertiary structure? They form the 3D structure
If the latest Mars rover, Curiousity, found a mummified organism and demonstrated it was composed of cells, would that increase the generality of the cell theory? No
Created by: lrhamy