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ONCOLOGY1400

Oncology-Alison M.

QuestionAnswer
Early warning signs of cancer: change in bowel or bladder; non-healing lesion; unusual bleeding/discharge; thickening/lump in breast or elsewhere; difficulty swallowing; change in wart/mole; persistent cough or hoarseness
Oncology: nursing for clients of all ages with cancer
Cancer is characterized by: abnormal, unrelated cell proliferation
Cancer cells: invade normal tissue and compete with normal cells for oxygen, nutrients, and space
"oma" indicates: tumor
4 main tumor classifications: Carcinomas, Lymphomas, Leukemias, Sarcomas
Carcinoma: epithelial cells (skin, digestive tract)
Lymphomas: organs that fight infection (lymphatic system)
Leukemias: organs that form blood (bone marrow)
Sarcomas: connective tissue (bone and muscle)
Neoplasms abnormal tissue or tumors
Cancer second leading cause of death
Cancer risk factors heredity, familial, carcinogen, chemical agents, environmental factors, diet, viruses, medically prescribed interventions
Hereditary risk factor: based on a single gene; damaged DNA is passed to offspring; predictable patterns of inheritance
Familial risk factor: NO single gene is identified; appear more frequently in a family than is expected
Carcinogen risk factor: factors & agents that contribute to development of cancers
Chemical agent risk factors: account for 75% of all cancers; tobacco, asbestos, coal dust
Environmental risk factors: sunlight, radiation, pollution
Diet risk factors: high fat, salt smoked meats, alcohol and nitrates increase risk
Virus risk factors: cell changes due to invasion of virus DNA (Kaposi's sarcoma, Helicobacter pylori)
Medically prescribed interventions: immunosuppressive drugs, hormone replacements
Hereditary risk factor: based on a single gene; damaged DNA is passed to offspring; predictable patterns of inheritance
Familial risk factor: NO single gene is identified; appear more frequently in a family than is expected
Carcinogen risk factor: factors & agents that contribute to development of cancers
Chemical agent risk factors: account for 75% of all cancers; tobacco, asbestos, coal dust
Environmental risk factors: sunlight, radiation, pollution
Diet risk factors: high fat, salt smoked meats, alcohol and nitrates increase risk
Virus risk factors: cell changes due to invasion of virus DNA (Kaposi's sarcoma, Helicobacter pylori)
Medically prescribed interventions: immunosuppressive drugs, hormone replacements
7 warning signs of cancer: 1. change in bowel habits/bladder function2. sores that don't heal 3. unusual bleeding/discharge 4. thickening/lump in breast or other body parts 5. Indigestion or difficulty swallowing 6. recent change in a wart/mole 7. nagging cough/hoarseness
Stage 1 cancer: malignant cells are confined to the tissue of origin
Stage 2 cancer: spread to local area usually the lymph nodes
Stage 3 cancer: larger tumor or spread to surrounding tissues or both
Stage 4 cancer: metastasized to distant body parts
C Comfort
A Altered body image
N Nutrition
C Chemotherapy
E Evaluate Response to Meds
R Respite for caretakers
Created by: txladybug70