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micro test 2 extra

dtcc micro test 2

QuestionAnswer
most cells are made up of agar
some cells are made up of ___ instead of agar gelatin
some bacteria eat/ absorb ___ gelatin
purpose media is a ____ complex type
fastidious is ? Bacteria that require growth factors and complex nutrients
both selective and differential media have the ability to suppress the growth of some organisms and produce a visual distinction among the ones that do grow
what is an incubator a temperature-controlled chamber to encourage the multiplication of microbes
how do we observe incubation on a liquid? cloudiness, sediment, color change
how do we observe incubation on a solid? appearance of colonies
what may be needed for growth to occur during incubation? o2 or carbon dioxide may be required for growth
what is the desired result for isolation? pure culture
what techniques do we use to isolate microbes? steak plate, pour plate/loop dilution, spread plate
streak plate thins out the sample and separates cell
loop dilution dilutes the number of cells in each successive tube in the series
spread method small volume of diluted sample is pipetted onto the surface of solid medium spread evenly by hockey stick
• What are the major components of the cell? cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm
• What are the cardinal temperatures? minimum, optimum, maximum
parasites deprive nutrients from living host
obligate parasites are? unable to grow outside living host
heat is an? Imp agent in microbial control
typhus bacterium multiplies between 32c-38c
staph aureus grow between 6c-46c
What are the terms used to categorize microbes with different optimum temperatures? Psychrophile, psychrotroph, mesophile, thermophile, extreme thermophile
psychrophiles are? below 15c capable at 0c, wont grow above 20c,
psychrotrops grow between? 15-30c
Medically significant microbes are? mesophiles
psychrotrops grow at? 20-40c
thermoduric have Heat resistant endospore formers Bacilus and Clostridium
gases are catergorized based on us and ability to detoxify
The atmospheric gases that influence microbial growth are o2 and co2
O2 has the greatest impact on microbial growth
O2 is an important respiratory gas and a powerful oxidizing agent.
microbes fall into three categories use o2 and detoxify it, nuse neither o2 nor detoxify it, do not use 02 but can detoxify it
what are the toxic products of oxygen singlet o2, superoxide ion, hydrogen peroixde, hydroxyl radicals
3 types of microbes that use o2 are? aerobes, microaerophiles, anaerobes
three types of anaerobes are? facultative, aerotolerant, obligate
anaerobes lace the metabolic enzyme for o2
all microbes require some ____ in their metabolism co2
co2 requirements are not relate to o2 requirements
strong acids and bases damage metabolic enzymes and cellular substrate
the ph scales are called acidophiles and alkalinophiles
acidophiles organisms thrive at acidic enviornments
alkalinophiles organism thrive in alkaline conditions
osmotic pressure are most microbes exist under hypotonic and isotonic conditons
the pressure of ocean depths subject organisms to increasing hydrostatic pressure
radiation phtotrops use visible light rays as energy source
Some microbes produce yellow carotenoid pigments to protect against effects of light by absorbing toxic o2
Other types of radiation that can damage microbes are uv and ionizing rays
symviosis is a situation in which 2 organisms live togther in close patnership
what are the 3 categories of symbiosis? mutualism, commensalism, parasitism
Mutualism microbes recieve necessary nutrients that gives its host benifits
mutualism microbes help the healthy development of immune system
mutualism good microbes are in the gut (normal biota)
non-saprobes can have both parasitic and commensal members
the 2 non-symbiotic relationships are antagonism and synergism
antibiotics is a form of antagonism
antibitoics isolated from bacteria and fungi are used a drugs
biofilms are a partnership among multiple microbial inhabitants
microbes in a biofilm as opposed to free living forms respond very differently to their environments
biofilms are mixed communities of different kinds of bacteria
bacteria most often grow using a process called binary fission
Exponential growth equation N^t=[n^i)2^n
Count colonies x volume = Estimated total population
N^t = Total number
N^I = Starting number of cells
N= Generation number
2^n = Number of cells in that generation
Closed growth system Predictable growth. Pattern
Open growth system You have to continuous provide nutrients and remove waste products
What are the stages in the normal growth curve 1. Lag 2. Log 3. Stationary growth 4. Death
Viable nonculturable state (vnc) is Cells is death phase are ali e but dormant.
Visible plate closed culturing Nutrients and space no waste removal
Closed culture causes. ___ in growth graph Curve
What is typical for generation time of bacteria 20-60 minutes all are different
You can count bacterial growth by 1. Turbidity 2. Counting 3. Genetic probing
Cell counting by these 2 methods 1. Direct counting 2. Coulter count
Flow cytometer counts Number of cells, size, diff tween live and dead
Active (early to mid) phase makes bacteria More contagious
Virus cell sei. Ks 20nm-450nm
Nucleic acid can be DNA or RNA not both
Old classification system classifies viruses by What host cell the infect (animal, bacteria, ect)or what disease the cause
Helical is a Rod shape
Some virus envelope proteins are replaced with Special viral protein
The animal virus life cycle takes 8-36 hours
The animal virus life cycle has 5 stages 3. Synthesis 4. Assembly 5. Release
Heptatis b only effect Liver cells
Polio virus Intestinal and nerve cells of primates
Tropisms are viruses that have Tissue specifications for certain cells in the body
The mumps virus targets the Salivary glands
Endocytosis the entire virus is Engulfed by the cell and enclosed in a vacuole or vesicle l0
Dna is in the nucleus
rna is in the cytoplasm
retroviruses turn rna into dna
the early synthesis phase is when dna and rna enter and replicate
the late synthesis phase is when transcription and translation of genes for capsid
after the late synthesis phase is when the new viral genomes and capsids are matured viruses and are released by budding.
integration is when some viruse become silently integrated into the host genome
integration of a virus may transform cell into cancer cell, production of tumor
there are 2 methods of release of viruses they are? 1. nonenveloped/ complex 2. enveloped
Cytopathic effects are 1. damage to cell 2.size/shape 3. syncytia
syncytia is the fusion of multiple host cells into single large cell with multiple nucleus
some cells carry viruses but do not undergo lysis immediately this is persistent infections
during persistent infections the cell maintains _______ and can last from ______? carrier relationships, weeks to life time
up to ___ % cancers are caused by viruses 20%
The lytic life cycle (lytic phases) are 1. attach tail fibers 2. inject nucleic acids 3. replicate virus 4. new complete phages 5. lyse cell release new virions 6. replicate dna/ rna 7. new virions 8. masturation 9. lysis weakens and releases virus
Lysogeny is known as the silent virus infection
the temperate phages of Lysogeny are 1. adsorption and penetration 2. do not undergo replication and release immediately
the viral dna enters an inactive prophage state which is 1. inserted into chromosome 2. copied (cell division)
occasionally lysogenic phage genes cause the production of toxins or enzymes that cause pathology in humans.
corynebacterium diphtheria is a diphtheria toxin
vibro cholera is a cholera toxin
clostridium botulinum is a botulinum toxin
diphtheria toxins are responsible for deadly nature of disease in bacteriophage product
Corynebacterium diphtheria without the phage is harmless
spongiform encephalopathies has long periods of latency (few years) before first clinical signs appear
prions can be progressive and fatal
BSE is bovine spongiform ancephalopathy (mad cows disease)
Prions have a multiple system atrophy (MSA)
prions have an accumulation of protein alpha-synuclein
Prions have symptoms throughout the body
Viroids have no capsid or any other coating
Most antiviral drugs block viral replication by targeting the function of host cells but with severe side effects.
vaccines are valuable but limited
the four possible outcomes of microbial control methods are sterilization, disinfection, decontamination/ sanitization antisepsis/ degermination
what types of microbes are the most resistant to disinfection/ destruction?
practical matters in microbial control critical is that that come in contact with mucous membrane (Endoscopy tube)
practical matters in microbial control non critical are items that do not touch patient or are only expected to touch intact skin
an example of critical microbial control blood pressure cuffs or crutches
for microbial control Substance being treated Solid to sensitive liquids (Serum)
Method of disposal could be Catheter or syringes are sterilized
some concerns when choosing a method of microbial control is cost, effectiveness, method of disposal are all important
defining death in general is permanent termination of organism
in general organism death Loss of nervous function, respiration or heartbeat
factors that influence death rate is 1. # of organisms 2. kind 3. temp and ph 4. mode of action 5. interference of organic matter
microbial control techniques targets the 1. cell wall 2. cell membrane 3. cellular synthesis (dna/ rna) 4. proteins
Methods of controlling mirobes can be divided into two categories physical and chemical
Freezing and drying microbes Desiccation does kill some organisms Freezing/Chilling kills very few
Delicate pathogens such as streptococcus pneumoniae can die after a few hours of air drying
Staphylococci and Streptococci in dried secretions and tubercle bacillus surrounded by sputum can remain viable in air and dust for lengthy periods
Cold treatment is to slow growth of cultures and microbes
Some psychrophiles grow very slowly even at freezing temperatures can continue to secrete toxic products
two variables are determined for microbes that are common or important contaminants in various heat treated materials are temp and time
Incineration in a flame is perhaps the most rigorous of all heat treatments
The flame of bunsen burner reaches 1870c
Dry/Hot Air Ovens 1. up to 400 degrees 2. take long time 3. accidental burning
boiling is good for non lab needs
incineration method presents hazards to the operator and to the environment
boiling is a Good disinfection method but not sterilization
flash method is less likely to change flavor and nutrient content
flash temp 71.6c for 15sec
batch temp 63 to 66c for 30 min
pressurized steam machine is called an ___ and pressure raises boiling water to ___ and sterilizes in ___ autoclave, 121c 15 minutes
at sea level 1 atmospheric pressure (psi) water boils 100c
at 15 atmospheric pressure (psi) water boils at 121c
pasteurization (steaming) limitations are not suitable for substances that repel moisture
radiation can be done on a large scale
there are 2 types of radiation and they are ionizing and nonionizing
radiation is energy emitted from atomic activities and dispersed at high velocity through matter or space
wavelengths that is suitable for microbial control are 1.gamma rays 2. xrays 3. uv radiation
desiccation (freezing and chilling) and potentially dangerous because it doesn't affect most microbes just slows it
ionizing radiation is an effective alternative for sterilizing materials that are sensitive to heat or chemicals
the advantages of ionizing radiation is that it is speed, high penetrating power with absences of heat
ionizing radiation is limited because some foods do not irradiate well
radiation machines can cause danger to operators from exposure and damage some materials
non ionizing radiation is uv rays
non ionizing radiation is very good for air, some liquids, surface of solids
non ionizing radiation is at what nm 100-400nm
bacterial spores are 10 times more resistant to radiation that vegetative cells
uv disinfection of liquid requires a special instrument to spread the liquid into a think film
filter sterilization doesnt alter substance with heat or chemicals
osmotic pressure causes pickling, smoking and drying
adding large amounts of salt or sugar creates a _____ environment for ___ in foods, causing _____ and making it impossible for ___ to ____. hypertonic, bacteria, plasmolysis, bacteria, multiply
chemical controls can affect liquid, gas or solid
chemical control has a complete range of efficacy
the common forms of chemical control is aqueous solutions, tinctures
aqueous solutions is dissolved in water
tinctures is dissolved in alcohol or water alcohol mixtures
microbicidal is rapid acting even at low concentrations
microbicidal are soluble and stable in alcohol or water
microbicidal are non non corrosive and non staining
factors that affect activity of chemical agents are 1. type of micoorganisms 2. type of material being treated 3. degree of contamination 4. time of exposure 5. strength and chemical action of germicide
halogens denature enzymes and suspend metabolic reactions
halogens kills all microbes including spores
halogens can be slow, toxic, and irritating to skin
halogen elements are flourine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine
hydrogen peroxide forms toxic free radicals
hydrogen peroxide can be sporicidal at high concentrations
hydrogen peroxide are good for tissues and delicates
hydrogen peroxide is oxygen forms free radicals which are highly toxic and reactive to cells
aldehydes are Glutaraldehyde and Formaldehyde
aldehydes sterilizes medical equipment
formaldehyde is toxic, irritating and carcinogenic
glutaraldehyde are somewhat unstable with increased ph and temp
formaldehyde forms formalin solution in water
when formaldehyde forms formalin solution in water is attaches to nucleic acids and functional groups of amino acids
gas sterilization is _____ that disrupts ethylene oxide, dna replication and enzymatic actions
gas sterilizations are s sporicidal
gas sterilization disinfects delicate or plastic instruments
gas sterilization are c carcinogenic
gas sterilization is explosive and must be combined with high % of co2 or fluorocarbon
phenol can be dangerous/ irrating as antiseptics
phenol toxicity of many phenolics makes them dangerous
chlorhexidine works __ with ___ fast, mild to low toxicity
chlorhexidine has veriable effectivness on viruses and gunfi
alcohol is e ethanol or isopropanol over 50%
alcohol is used as skin degerming agents
detergents are effective on viruses, algae, fungi, and gp bacteria
detergents are used for household cleaning
detergents are ineffective on tb, hepatitis, spores, ect.
polar molecules are surfactants
anionic detergents are limited microbial power
cationic is a quaternary ammonium compound
heavy metal compounds are silver or mercury
with heavy metal compounds microbes can develop resistance to metals
heavy metal compounds can be toxic
heavy metal compounds can be organic or inorganic metallic salt
organic mercuials serve as preservatives in cosmetics, opthalmic solutions and other substances
prophylaxis is the use of a drug to prevent infection
Administer a drug to an infected person it will destroy the infective agent without harming the host’s cells
an ideal antimicrobial drug compliments or assists the host defenses
an ideal antimicrobial drug is reasonably priced
the origin of antimicrobial bacteria is stretomyces and bacillus
the origin of antimicrobial mold is penicillium and cephalosporium
how to start antimicrobial therapy 1. identify the organism 2. sensitivity/ susceptibility of organisms to drugs 3. condition of patient
epidemiology is the study and analysis of patterns, causes, and effects of health and disease conditions defined populations
now the we have identified the bug you must now determine drug and dose
now that we have identified the bug you need to the consider the major factor drug susceptibility
now that we have identified the bug there are 2 options for testing and they are kirby-bauer test minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)
the pros of kirby bauer are 1, easy 2. highly reproducible 3. in vitro matches in vivo results
the cons of kirby bauer is 1. anaerobes and slow growers 2. qualitative, not quantitative
minimum inhibitory concentration prepares antibiotic at a known 1/2 each time
minimum inhibitory concentration inoculates a small uniform sample of pure culture into each tube
to interpret the ____ concentration of antibiotic that shows ____ is the minimum inhibitory concentration smallest, no growth
MIC determines the smallest effective dosage of a drug
the pros of MIC is 1. quantitative 2. compare to dosage of tolerated by patients 2. allows for anaerobes 4. can be automated
the cons of MIC is 1. requires more materials than KB 2. more error prone if using separate tubes
To determine how toxic an antimicrobic you look at the therapeutic index
to calculate TI you do toxic dose/ MIC
The Best drug has high selective toxicity to infectious agent and low human toxicity
The smaller the TI ration the greater the potential for toxic drug reactions
Peptidoglycan antibiotics are 1. penicillin 2. derivatives 3. cephalosporins 4. Carbapenems 5. Bacitracin 6. Isoniazid 7. Vancomycin
Protein synthesis antibiotics 1. aminoglycosides 2. Tetracyclines 3. Glycylcyclines 4. Macrolides 5.Clindamycin
3 main actions of antibacterial drugs 1. cell wall synthesis 2. protein synthesis nucleic acid structure and function 4. cell membrane structure 5. folic acid synthesis
what are some patient factors when considering drugs 1. allergies 2. special group? infants, elderly, pregnant 3. drug interactions 5. site of infection 6. route of administration 7. cost
Folic acids antibitoics are sulfonamides (sulfa drugs)
DNA/RNA antibiotics fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin
Cell membrane antibiotics polymyxins
when treating eukaryotic infections 1. recall organism 2. bacterial antibiotics 3. selective toxicity
Macrolide Polyenes antifungal drug is amphotericin B
_____ is a disease caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. symptoms vary, disease affects the lungs. Histoplasmosis
Azoles has a wide range of functions
Azoles drugs include Miconazole Ketoconazole Fluconazole
Enchinocandins works against Candida and aspergillosis
Enchinocandins drugs are 1. Micagungin 2. Capsofungin
Nucleotide Cytosine analog drug is Flucytosine
Nucleotide cytosine analog can be cutaneous or systemic treatment
Nucleotide Cytosine analog combined with other drugs like amphotericin B to treat systemic mycoses under close medical supervision
Antiprotozoans drugs are 1. Quinines and quinolones 2. Flagyl 3. Quinacrine 4.Sulfonamides (sulfa drugs) 5. Tetracyclines 6. Amoebicide metronisdazole
Quinines are used for Malaria
The most effective drugs for Helminths immobilize, disintegrate or inhibit the metabolism in all stages of life
Antivirals inhibit assembly and release/prevent maturation of viral particles
Prophylactic Antimicrobials are preventative
Prophylactic Antimicrobials cause weak immune system
we avoid using Prophylactic Antimicrobials because it takes away good bacteria
why after doing tests, treatment will a drug fail? 1. cant get to infection site 2. resistance 3. more than 1 pathogen 4. patient reaction 5. drug cant reach site
drug resistance is when a drug is not longer effective
drug resistance can occur in any pathogen
______ occurs through plasmids (resistance factors) that are transferred through conjugation. Sharing of such resistant genes accounts from the rapid proliferation of drug resistant species. Horizontal gene transfer
Bacteria becomes resistant to drugs by secreting new enzymes
How can a whole population is resistant to drugs because of 1. transformation 2. transcution 3. conjugation
the 5 mechanisms of drug resistance is step 1 Bacteria secretes new enzyme and inactivate drugs.
the 5 mechanisms of drug resistance is step 2 Reduction in permeability/uptake
the 5 mechanisms of drug resistance is step 3 drug is immediately eliminated
the 5 mechanisms of drug resistance is step 4 binding sites are altered or decreased or affinity changes – Mutations or new genes
the 5 mechanisms of drug resistance is step 5 Metabolic pathway gets affected
for prevention of emergence of resistant bacteria what are the 5 ways 1.Take antibiotics for the time prescribed 2. Do not self prescribe 3. Take antibiotics as prescribed 4. Report adverse reactions immediately 5. Avoid antibiotics in food
some outcomes from an allergic reaction is Rash, shock, respiratory arrest
People who are ______ to a drug become sensitized to it during the first contact usually without symptoms allergic
when the immune system is _______, a second exposure to the drug can lead to allergic reactions sensitized
Liver (Hepatotoxic) and kidneys (Nephrotoxic) GI tract CNS Cardiovascular system Blood forming tissue (Hemotoxic) Respiratory tract Skin Bones Teeth are all affected by toxicities
superinfection is associated with 1. long term antibiotic use 2. broad spectrum antibiotics
Possible Solutions to Superinfection are 1. Probiotics 2. prebiotcs 3. fecal transplant
_______ - Preparations of live microorganisms that are fed to animals and humans to improve intestinal biota probiotics
what replaces microbes lost during antimicrobial therapy or simply augment the biota that is already present probiotics ex. yogurt
_____– Nutrients that encourage the growth of beneficial microbes on the intestine prebiotics
______- Transfer of feces from healthy person via colonoscopy. fecal transplant
_____ refers to the ability of antibiotics to selectively target bacterial cells yet have no toxicity towards human cells selective toxicity
why is selective toxicity difficult to achieve the antiviral drug has to go inside the cell to stop the virus(affecting host)
one drawback for amphotericin B is it has poor poor CNS penetration; not good enough to be used alone
The primary targets of microbial control are microorganisms that cause __ or __. 1. disease 2. food spoilage
Which of the following are examples of physical agents or mechanical means used to control microbes? 1. Filtration 2. Heat 3. Radiation 4. Cold
Created by: xokitty17xo