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Bio Exam 1

anecdotal evidence type of evidence that is unreliable since it isn't based on systematic study
peer review review of article by experts before publication
hypothesis tentative explanation for scientific question
independent variable the variable being changed
dependent variable outcome that depends on variable being changed
sample size number of participants in a study
statistical significance measure that results are real and not due to chance
scientific theory explanation of natural world supported by evidence, never has been disproved
homeostasis relatively constant internal environment
energy the power to do work
metabolism the chemical reactions taking place in cells of living organisms that allow it to obtain and use energy
element substances that can not be broken down into smaller substances
matter anything that takes up space and has mass
atom smallest unit of an element that cannot be broken down into smaller units
proton positively charged subatomic particle in the nucleus of an atom
electron negatively charged subatomic particle with negligible mass
neutron an electrically uncharged subatomic particle in the nucleus of an atom
nucleus dense core of an atom
covalent bond strong chemical bond resulting from sharing of a pair of electrons between 2 atoms
molecule atoms linked by covalent bonds
organic molecule with carbon based backbone and at least one c-h bond
inorganic molecule that lacks carbon based backbone and c-h bonds
carbohydrate organic molecule made up of one or more sugars
monosaccharide one sugar carbohydrate
polysaccharide carbohydrate with multiple linked sugar
protein organic molecule made up of linked amino acid subunits
lipids organic molecules that generally repel water
nucleic acid organic molecules made of linked nucleotide subunits
macromolecules large organic molecules that make up living organisms
monomer one chemical subunit of a polymer
polymer molecule made of individual subunits called monomers linked together in a chain
monosacchride building block or monomer of a carbohydrate
amino acid building block or monomer of a protein
nucleotide building block or monomer of a nucleic acid
cell basic structural unit of living organisms
cell membrane phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins that forms the boundary of all cells
phospholipid type of lipid that forms the cell membrane
hydrophobic "water fearing" doesn't dissolve in water
hydropholic "water loving" does dissolve in water
polar molecule partial negative partial positive charge, electrons not shared equally
example of polar molecule water
hydrogen bond weak electrical attraction between partially negative and positive charged atoms
cohesion water molecules sticking to water molecules through hydrogen bonding
adhesion water molecules sticking to other surfaces through hydrogen bonding
solvent substance in which other substances can dissolve ie water
solute a dissolved substance
solution mixture of solute and solvent
ionic bond form between atoms that have opposite electrical charges
ion an electronically charged atom, the charge resulting from the loss or gain of electrons
ph the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution
acid has higher concentration of hydrogen ions and ph closer to 0
base reduces hydrogen concentration making them more basic
virus infectious agent made of protein shell that encloses genetic information
prion protein only infectious agent
antibiotic chemical that slows or stops growth of bacteria
`cell theory cells make uo everything, cells are made from existing cells
prokaryotic cells cells that lack internal membrane- bound organelles
eukaryotic cells cells that contain membrane bound organelles, including a central nucleus
organelles compartments of eukaryotic cells that carry out specific functions
cell membrane phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins that form boundary of all cells
cytoplasm gelatinous interior of all cells
ribosome complex of RNA and proteins that carry out protein synthesis in all cells
nucleus organelle in eukaryotic cells that contain the genetic material
cell wall rigid structure enclosing the cell membrane of some cells that help to keep shape
osmosis the diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane from an area
hypotonic describes a solution surrounding a cell that has a lower concentration of solutes than the cell
hypertonic describes a solution surrounding a cell that has a higher concentration of solutes than the cell
isotonic describes a solution surrounding a cell that has the same solute concentration as the cell
peptidoglycan polymer made of sugar and amino acids that link to form a chainlink sheath around the cell
gram-positive bacteria with a cell wall that includes a thick layer of peptidoglycan that retains the gram stain
gram-negative bacteria with a cell wall that includes a thin layer of peptidoglycan, does not retain gram stain
nuclear envelope double membrane surrounding nucleus of eukaryotic cell
mitochondria power house, extracts energy
endoplasmic reticulum (er) network of membranes in eukaryotic cells where proteins and lipids are synthesized
golgi apparatus packages proteins and prepares them for transport
chloroplast responsible for plant photosynthesis
lysosome cell's recycling center
cytoskeleton protein fibers in eukaryotic cells that provide structure and allow cell movement
endosymbiosis theory that prokaryotic cells engulffed others forming eukaryotic cells
Created by: 1738400229818217
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