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Biology Chapter 7

Chapter 7 Summerize

Phase one of the cellular respiration function to covert glucose into ATP is: _________________. Glycolysis
Phase two of the cellular respiration function to covert glucose into ATP is: ____________ (prep) ____________. Preparatory/reaction
Phase three of the cellular respiration function to covert glucose into ATP is: ____________ ______________ _____________. Citric acid cycle
Phase four of the cellular respiration function to covert glucose into ATP is: _____ ____________ ____________ Electron transport chain
Glycolysis the first stage of cellular respiration, occurs within the ___________________ of the cell. Cytoplasm
If __________ is present, cells will use the aerobic pathways of the citric acid cycle and electron transport chain within the mitochondria to generate ATP. Oxygen
__________, such as fats and proteins, may be used by the cellular respiration pathways. Nutrients
Cellular respiration convert the organic molecules in food into ATP, the universal ________ required by all living organisms. Energy
______________ exist for the production of ATP in both aerobic and anaerobic environments. Pathways
Cellular respiration produces __________________ _______________ from organic molecules, particularly glucose. Adenosine triphosphate
____________ molecules power activities at the cellular level. ATP
____________ ________________ is the metabolic reaction that uses the energy from the breakdown of carbohydrates (primarily glucose), fatty acids, or amino acids to produce ATP molecules. Cellular respiration
During cellular respiration, glucose is ________________ to CO2 which we exhale. Oxidized
Oxygen (O2), which we breathe in, is ___________ to H2O. Reduced
When glucose is oxidized, energy is ____________. Released
_______ is the breakdown of glucose to two molecules of pyruvate, is a series of enzymatic reactions that occur in the cytoplasm. Glycolysis
During Glycolysis, glucose is oxidized by the ___________ or hydrogen ions (H+) and electrons (e-). Removal
During Glycolysis, when NAD+ accepts electrons, __________ results. NADH
______________ releases enough energy to immediately give a net gain of two ATP by substrate-level ATP synthesis. Breakdown
Following glycolysis, if oxygen is ____________, pyruvate from glycolysis enters mitochondria. Present
Following glycolysis, if oxygen is ____________, pyruvate enters the fermentation pathways. Absent
________________ is anaerobic breakdown of glucose that results in a gain of 2 ATP and end products, such as alcohol and lactate. Fermentation
Fermentation involves glycolysis followed by the reduction of pyruvate by NADH, either to ___________ or to__________ and CO2. Lactate/alcohol
The reduction of pyruvate _________________ NAD+, which can accept more hydrogen atoms during glycolysis. Regenerates
Although fermentation results in only two ATP, it still provides a quick burst of energy for ______-_____, strenuous muscular activity. Short-term
The ________________ of lactate puts an individual in oxygen deficit. Accumulation
___________ ___________ is the amount of oxygen needed when lactate is completely metabolized to CO2 and H2O. Oxygen deficit
In the presence of oxygen, the ___________ _____________of cellular respiration occur. Aerobic reactions
During the _______________________ reaction in the matrix, pyruvate is oxidized, releasing CO2, Preparatory
NAD+ accepts __________ions and electrons, forming NADH. Hydrogen
______________ group is the end product. Acetyl
An acetyl group combines with CoA, forming ____________________________ Acetyl-CoA
The acetyl-CoA reaction takes place ______ for each molecule of glucose. Twice
The _____________ _____________ _____________ is a series of reactions occurring in the mitochondrial matrix. Citric acid cycle
Acetyl groups ________ the citric acid cycle Enter
During one turn of the Citric Acid Cycle, oxidation results in _____ CO2, ____ NADH, ___ FADH2, ____ ATP and ____ turns of the cycle per glucose molecule. Two/three/one/one/two
The ________ _________ of cellular respiration involves the electron transport chain located in the cristae of the mitochondria. Final stage
The ______________ _______ ________ is a series of electron carriers that accept high-energy electrons (e-) from NADH and FADH2. Electron transport chain
The electron transport chain pass electrons along until they are finally _____-_______ electrons received by oxygen, which combines with H+ to produce water. Low-energy
The _______________ of the electron transport chain are located in molecular complexes on the cristae of mitochondria. Carriers
The electron transport chain carriers capture energy from the passage of electrons and use it to pump H+ into the _________ space of the mitochondrion. Intermembrane
When H+ flows down its gradient into the matrix through ATP synthase complexes, energy is released and used to form ATP __________ from ADP and P. Molecules
Energy yield from Glucose ____________. Metabolism.
Of the maximum ____ ATP formed by complete glucose breakdown, _____ are the result of substrate-level ATP synthase. 38/4
When complete glucose breakdown occurs, the rest are ________ as a result of the electron transport chain and the ATP synthase. Produced
Most cells produce fewer than ____ ATP per glucose molecule. 36
Besides carbohydrates, glycerol and fatty acids from fats and amino acids from proteins can ____________ cellular respiration by entering glycolysis and/or the citric acid cycle. Undergo
These metabolic pathways also provide substrates for the synthesis of ______________ and ____________. Fats/proteins
ATP stores lots of potential ___________. Energy
It is a unit of energy used by __________ things. Living
ATP is the ____________ for cells. Gasoline
The arrows in the ATP ____________ means release energy. Equation
ATP energy is released _________! Fast
ATP is converted to __________ (releases most energy). ADP
ADP is converted to __________ (releases little energy). AMP
ATP is made of ______ parts. 3
ATP part one is _______. Adenine
Adenine is amino acid, monomers and used to build ______. Protein
ATP part two is __________. Ribose
Ribose if the foundation or __________. Sugar
________ 3 groups is a molecule. It is a P with a circle around it. Phosphate
A _____________ ____________ is energy required by one process is supplied by another process. Coupled reaction
In a coupled reaction, energy-releasing _______ can drive an energy-requiring ________. Reaction/reaction
In coupled reaction, the reaction to ATP breakdown is usually energy __________. Release
ATP must couple with ________ before it can go to _______ to form ADP + P. A&B/C&D
Created by: jwatts1
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