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Biology Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Summarize

The laws of _____________ determine how long living organisms use energy. Thermodynamics
The energy currency of the cell is ________, which is used by cells to power their cellular functions. ATP
Metabolic pathways are organized sets of ____________ ___________ in a cell that are regulated by enzymes. Chemical reactions
__________________ may be moved across the plasma membrane using active passive, and bulk transport. Molecules
_____________ is the capacity to do work. Energy
__________________ _____________________ can be converted to kinetic energy, and vice versa. Potential energy
__________ and __________ energy are forms of potential energy. Solar chemical
________________ ______________ is the energy of motion. Kinetic energy
________________ energy is a form of kinetic energy, Mechanical
_____ energy laws hold true universally. 2
Energy cannot be ____________ or destroyed. Created
Energy can be ____________ or transformed. Transferred
Food energy is measured in _________. Calories
1,000 calories equals a _________________. Kilocalorie
When energy is converted from one form to another, some is lost as ______. Heat
Therefore, the __________, or disorder, of the universe is increasing. Entropy
Only a constant input of energy ____________ the organization of living organisms. Maintains
Energy flows from the sun through _______________ and _________________, which produce ATP. Chloroplasts/mitochondria
Because ATP has three linked _____________ groups, it is a high energy molecule that tends to break down to ADP + P, releasing energy. Phosphate
ATP breakdown is coupled to various energy-requiring cellular reactions, including ____________ _______________, active transport, and muscle contraction. Protein synthesis
ATP ________ is coupled to various energy-requiring cellular reactions, including protein synthesis, active transport and muscle contraction. Breakdown
ATP breakdown is coupled to various energy-requiring cellular reactions, including protein synthesis, active transport, and __________ _________________. Muscle contraction
_________________ ________________ provides the energy for the production of ATP. Cellular respiration
A _________ ___________ is a series of reactions that proceeds in an orderly, step-by-step manner. Metabolic pathway
___________ enter a metabolic pathway. Reactants
They then are modified to produce ____________. Products.
Each reaction requires an ________ that is specific to its substrate. Enzyme
An enzyme brings ______________ together at the enzyme's active site according to the induced fit model. Substrates
An enzyme brings substrates together at the enzyme's __________ __________ according to the induced fit model. Active site
An enzyme brings substrates together at the enzyme's active site according to the ______________ __________ _________________, Induced fit model.
they speed reactions by lowering the ___________ of ______________. Energy of activation
The activity of most enzymes and metabolic pathways is regulated by __________________ __________________. Feedback inhibition.
_________ __________ requires no metabolic energy and moves substances from an area of higher concentration to an area of low concentration. Passive transport
In ______________, molecules move from the area of higher concentration to the area of lower concentration until the concentration of molecules is the same at both sites. Diffusion
In a ___________, the solute is dissolved in the solvent. Solution
___________ are usually solids or gases. Solutes
_____________ are usually liquids. Solvent
In ________________ ________________, molecules diffuse across a plasma membrane through a channel protein or with the assistance of carrier proteins. Facilitated diffusion
_______________ are channel proteins for water. Aquaporins
____________ is the diffusion of water (often using aquaporins) across a membrane toward the are of lower water concentration (higher solute concentration). Osmosis
Water moves from areas of low solute concentration is called _______________. Hypotonic
areas of high solute concentration is called ___________. Hypertonic
______________ solutions have equal solute concentrations. Isotonic
_______________ _____________ requires metabolic energy (ATP) and moves substances across a membrane from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration. Active transport
In many cases, a transport protein acts as a pump that causes a substance to move against its ____________ _______________. Concentration gradient.
The __________-______________- ________ carries Na+ to the outside of the cell and K+ to the inside of the cell. Sodium-potassium pump
_____________ _____________ requires vesicle formation and metabolic energy. Bulk transport
Bulk transport occurs _____________ of concentration gradients. Independently
______________ transports macromolecules out of a cell via vesicle formation and often results in secretion. Exocytosis
____________ transports macromolecules into a cell via vesicle formation. Endocytosis
___________-______________ ____________ makes use of receptor proteins in the plasma membrane. Receptor-mediated endocytosis
Created by: jwatts1
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