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Biology Chapter 3

Biology Chapter 3: Matter and Energy Flow

organisms that get energy from consuming living things hetertrophs
organisms that make their own food autotrophs
what is the process that autotrophs use to make food photosynthesis
process of capturing energy from sunlight to produce glucose photosynthesis
what organelle does photosynthesis take place chloroplasts
what are the reactants of photosynthesis (chemical equation) 6CO₂+6H₂O+sunlight
what are products of photosynthesis (chemical equation) 6O₂+6C₆H₁₂O₆
what are the reactants of photosynthesis (word equation) carbon dioxide + water + energy
what are the products of photosynthesis (word equation) oxygen + glucose
how many reactions does photosynthesis have 2
takes oxygen out of water, oxygen is the byproduct, occurs in thylakoids light dependent reaction
takes CO₂ from atmosphere to produce sugar, takes place in the stroma light independent reaction (Calvin cycle)
what 3 things affect photosynthesis amount of light, access to water, temperature
process that releases energy from food in the presence of oxygen, occurs in mitochondria, reverse of photosynthesis cellular respiration
reactants of cellular respiration ( chemical equation) 6O₂+6C₆H₁₂O₆
products of cellular respiration ( chemical equation) 6CO₂+6H₂O+ ATP
reactants of cellular respiration ( word equation) oxygen + glucose
products of cellular respiration ( word equation) carbon dioxide + water + energy
what are the 3 main stages of cellular respiration 1. glycolysis 2. Kreb's cycle 3. Electron Transport Vhain
break down of glucose, provides ATP quickly, doesn't require oxygen, produces pyruvic acid, occurs in cytoplasam, produces 2 ATP molecules glycolysis
uses pyruvic acid from glycolysis, produces 2 ATP molecules, produces high energy electrons, occurs in mitochondria Kreb's cycle (citric acid cycle)
uses electrons from Kreb cycle, requires oxygen, occurs in membrane of mitochondria, produces 32 ATP molecules Electron transport chain
glycolysis + kreb's cycle + ETC = ______________________- 36 ATP
process that releases energy from food in the absence of oxygen fermentation
supplies enough ATP to last 90 seconds lactic acid fermentation
what does your body need to go through to make ATP cellular respiration
process that requires oxygen aerobic
process that doesn't require oxygen anaerobic
how many species live on Earth 10-100 million
what is the most abundant species bacteria
how many species have been named 1.4 million (mostly insects)
individual of a species organism
group of individuals of a species that live in an area population
group of populations in the same area community
community interacting with environment ecosystem
what does an ecosystem contain biotic and abiotic factors
region that organisms are adapted to living biome
all life on Earth and all parts where life exists biosphere
different species in a specific area biodiversity
a sequence that links species through feeding relationships food chain
eat producers herbivores
eat consumer carnivore
eats producers and consumers omnivore
eats dead animals scavengers
eats and breaks down organic material decomposer
feeds on waste and dead organisms detritivores
complex network of feeding interactions food web
where does the arrow always point to in a food web the organism that eats it
shows how energy is transferred through organisms trophic pyramid
how is energy lost at every level of the trophic pyramid uses energy for metabolism and energy is lost as heat
chemical processes needed to maintain life metabolism
how much energy is lost in each level 10 %
total dry mass of all organisms in a given area biomass
why do producers have the most biomass they get energy from the sun and they support all life
what is the water cycle driven by solar energy and gravity
what are the 6 steps of the water cycle precipitation, evaporation, condensation, runoff, infiltration, transpiration
rain, snow, sleet precipitation
water is heated and turns to gas evaporation
water is cooled and gas turns to liquid condensation
precipitation occurs to fast and cannot absorb runoff
water that seeps into the ground infiltration
water leaves plants alone and as gas transpiration
effects of human activities on water cycle polluting surface and underground water; withdrawing large amounts of fresh water
plants remove CO₂ from atmosphere, producers convert CO₂ into glucose/ oxygen carbon cycle
dead plants and organic matter compressed between rocks fossil fuels
human impacts of the carbon cycle clearing trees and burning fossil fuels add excess carbon to atmosphere
has to be "fixed" to compounds that organisms can use nitrogen cycle
what is the most abundant gas at 78% nitrogen cycle
converts organic material into ammonia nitrogen fixing bacteria
process of changing organic material into ammonia ammonification
Created by: dancer2024



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