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Biology 3&4

chapters 3 and 4

Is polar Hydrophobic or Hydrophylic? Hydrophobic
is Non-Polar Hydrophobic or Hydrophylic? Hydrophylic
What are Organic molecules? Contain atoms of Carbon, Made up of living things,Many C-C bonds, Many C-H bonds
Define Monomer: Single Small Molecule
Define Polymers; many monomers hooked together to make a big molecule.
explain Dehydration synthesis; takes away water to split monomer to polymer
explain hydrolysis adds water to combine polymers to make one monomer
what is the monomer of carbs (starch glycogen cellulose and chitin) monosaccharide (glucose)
what is the monomer of proteins (functional and structural) amino acids
what is the monomer of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) nucleotides
what is the monomer of lipids (fats) glycerol and three fatty acids
what is the monomer of lipids (phospholipids) glycerol, two fatty acids, phosphate and poor R groups
what is the monomer of lipids (steroids) four lused carbon rings
what is the monomer of lipids (terrpnes) long carbon chains
are all monosaccharides hydrophilic or hydrophobic? hydrophilic
chemicles that end in -OSE are typically ...? sugars
what are the functions of carbohydrates in living things? energy storage, structural
what are the monomers of carbohydrates? monosaccharides or "simple sugars"
define glucose: cells break down for energy by cellular respiration
what is the number of glucose C6 H12 O2
define isomer: molecules with the same formula BUT with the atoms arranged differently
what are polysaccharides also known as? complex carbohydrates
what are 4 types of Polysaccharides? 1 starch 2 glycogen 3 cellulose 4 chitin
do plants or animals make starch? explain. plants only (its how they store access glucose
is glycogen made by plants or animals? explain animals only (To store access glucose hydrophobic?
define cellulose hydrophobic main structural molecule of plants
is chitin hydrophobic or hydrophilic hydrophobic
what molecule does the most different kind of things? proteins
after water what is the most abundant molecule in the cell? proteins
what are polymers made up of amino acids? proteins
define primary structure sequence of amino acids in a protein
define secondary structure specific shape the long chain of amino acids assumes because of hydrogen bonds and other interactions between atoms
define tertiary structure helix and sheets fold onto themselves to form blobs ex hemoglobin
what are common kinds of secondary structures? pleated sheets and helix
define quatinary structures made by connecting several tertiary structures together
define motifs reaccuring elements in a proteins secondary structure ex helix
Beta Alpha Beta motifs or BAB motifs are often involved with the binding of? DNA
define domain functional unit within the tertiary and primary structures of large proteins
define chaperones proteins that help newly formed proteins fold into their correct secondary structures
define denaturation and example irreversible change of shape of a protein ex excessive heat low ph or high ph
define renaturation refolding protein back to proper shape
why do proteins unfold because of a disruption of the weak forces holding it in shape
what makes up a nucleotide? a hydrophilic phosphate group, a hydrophilic sugar and a nitrogenous base
what makes up DNA ? phosphate group a sugar and a base
bases of DNA A-G-C-T
bases of RNA A-G-C-U
define purines double ring structure (Adenine and glamine)
A= adenine
G= glamine
C= cytosine
T= thymine
U= Urasil
what does DNA replication use in prime? goes from 5 prime to 3 prime
hydrogen bonds always have the pattern A-T G-C
what is the difference between DNA and RNA DNA has ATCG double helix and deoxyribose phosphate backbone RNA has AUCG single strand and ribose phosphate backbone
what does A.T.P stand for? adenosine triphosphate
Define adenosine triphosphate (ATP) a molecule that transfers energy from place to place in the cell
define lipids generally hydrophobic they have lots of carbon to hydrogen bonds that can produce energy
what are 3 types of lipids 1 fats (triglycerides, saturated and unsaturated)
what is the Monomer units of fats 3 glycerol and 3 fatty acids
saturated fats have how many hydrogen? 2
define transfat partially hydrogenated fat that turns into cholesterol
how are saturated fats at room temp? solid and made by animals
what do saturated fats turn into? cholestrol
define unsaturated fats liquid at room temperature mae by plants only has 1 hydrogen
what are all living things made of? a double layer of phospholipids (cell membranes)
define cells everything a living thing is made up of and does is because of cells
what is the cell theory all living things are made of cells and cell products cells are the basic structural and function units of living things and ALL CELLS come from preexisting cells
what cell types use DNA as their genetic material prokaryotic cells and eukeroytic cells
define cytoplasm semi-fluid substance within cell
basic characteristics of cells 4 1 small 2 use DNA as genetic material 3 contain cytoplasm 4 surrounded by plasma/cell membrane
what synthesis takes place in ribosomes protein synthesis
what is a cell wall extra layer outside of the cell membrane
what is a capsule another layer outside of the cell wall
flagellum helps with...? movement
explain prokaryotes and identify the two main groups? have the basic characteristics of life but not much else 2 main groups bacteria and archea
explain eukeryotes have all the basic characteristics of life Plus much more
define organelles tiny organs
what makes cromatin DNA and proteins
what makes ribosomes? what is the ribosomes located by in the cell? what does it hook together made of RNA and proteins located by the nucleolus this structures amino acids hook to to make proteins
what is the nucleolus? what does it make? what is it made of? structure inside of nucleus ( dark colored ball) made of RNA and proteins makes ribosomes
what is the nuclear membrane ? what is it made of? surround nucleus and hold nucleolus in place made up of 2 double layers of phospholipids
what is nuclear pores small holes in the nuclear membrane to allow small molecules in and out of the nucleus (water, small proteins etc) but leaves DNA trapped inside the nucleus
what does the Smooth endplasmic reticulum make and store? makes carbohydrates, steroids, and stores calcium
what makes up the the endomembrane system endoplasmic reticulum and golgi body: system of membranes petitions
what does the rough ER ribosomes make? what is it made of? ribosomes attatched to the rough ER make protein, made of double layer of phospholipids
what is the golgi body made up of? what does the golgi body do? flat sacks double layer of phospholipids functions as the cells post office receives molecules inside transport vesicle labels the molecule and sends itwhere it needs to go using secretory vessicles
what does the golgi apparatus do in plants? in plants makes polysaccharides that go into the cell wall
what are lysosomes made of? what do lysosomes do? collection of acids and powerful enzymes surrounded by exra thick membrane; breaks down old organelles and recycles parts
what happens if the lysosomes wall is too thin? the acids leak out and the cell kills itself also known as the suicide bags
what do micro bodies contain? what do they do? enzymes that break down fatty acids or hydrogen peroxide
what are proteasomes? compresses of recycled proteins
what does mitochondria make? makes ATP "power plant" 2 membranes outter and inner space between = inter membrane space or matrix
what do chloroplasts contain? plants only contain chlorophyll make it green central vassal bubble membrane and tonoplasts area around vacural
what is function of cytoskeleton? give cell shape anchors organelles and membranes in its place enables movement in cell and of cell
what arrangement does flagellum have 9 + 2 arrangement 9 triplet microtubules outside; 2 on the inside
citia and flagella are most common in anima or plant cells? animal cells
cell walls have how many layers? 2 primary and secondary
what is the primary cell wall more flexible allows cell to grow
what happens when secondary cell wall is developed? once developed the cell doesn't grow anymore
what does ECM stand for? extracellular matrix (mostly fibers and proteins)
what are protein markers made of? ECM glycolipids and MHC markers
what do surface markers do? in multicellular organisms help cell recognize each other
what do MHC do help cells in the immune system to see things and identify them as "YOU"
what is cell junction connections between cells that hold cells together in tissues
Created by: hiatt02



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