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Gen. Bio. I Test 1

Biology The study of the unity and diversity of life
Microbiology The study of small things
Zoology The study of animals
Cytology The study of cells
Histology The study of tissue
Botany The study of plants
Anatomy "To cut up"
4 atoms of life Carbon(C), Hydrogen(H), Oxygen(O), and Nitrogen(N)
Organelles Tiny structures assembled from molecules within which cellular activities are organized
Macromolecule A large, complex molecule
Prokaryotes Lack internal organization and a true nucleus
Eukarotes Have both internal organization and a membrane-bound nucleus
Prefix for cell "cyto-"
Suffix for cell "-cyte"
Tissue Groups of similar cells that act as a functional unit
Literal meaning of tissue Very thin
Organ Body structures composed of several different tissues that act as a structural and functional unit
System A functional unit composed of organs
Organism A complete and whole living thing
Population The number of individuals within a natural or artificial boundary
Community The populations within a boundary
Biosphere Anywhere life can exist
Metabolism The flow of energy
Catabolism To break down
Anabolism To build up
Homeostasis A steady state
Irritability Response to a stimulus
Adaptation An inherited characteristic that allows ans organism to solve a problem in nature
3 cornerstones of adaptation Mutation, Natural selection, and Time
Reproduction Production of a new individual
Number of cells required for sexual reproduction 2
Number of cells required for asexual reproduction 1
2 ways individuals grow 1) Each cell can get bigger 2) Cells can reproduce
Literal meaning of evolution To unroll
Death Lack of brain activity and lack of response to a stimulus
Biogenesis Life comes only from other living things
Spontaneous generation Life arising from non-living substances
Scientific method 1) Define the problem. 2) Make observations. 3) Develop an hypothesis. 4) Test the hypothesis. 5) Make conclusions.
Educated guess A guess based on observation
Experiment Test of an hypothesis
Variable of an experiment The unchanged part
Control of an experiment The unchanged part
Basis for conclusions Data found by experimentation
Serendipity Unintended results
Pure science Science for the sake of science
Applied science Solves a problem and uses technology
Variables in humans Are hard to isolate
Demographics Characteristics of a population (Sex, gender, age, etc.)
Random selection
Placebo A treatment with no scientific basis
Chemistry The study of matter
2 divisions of chemistry Organic and inorganic
Literal meaning of atom Indivisible
Atom The basic unit of nature
Proton Positively charged particle of 1 mass unit
Neutron Particle of 1 mass unit with no charge
Electron Negatively charge particle with no mass
Ion Charged particle
Cations(Positive ions) Charged particles formed by losing electrons
Negative ions Charged particles formed by gaining electrons
Isotopes Different forms of the same element formed by losing or gaining neutrons
Elements Substances in which all atoms are alike pure substances
Number of elements in nature 88-92
Mole A unit of measurement for molecules
Compound Two or more elements that are combined chemically
Bond That which holds compounds together
3 bond types Ionic, covalent, and hydrogen
Mixture Retaining the properties of their components, they can be separated by ordinary means.
pH Percent of hydrogen in a mixture
Characteristics of acids pH below 7, the lower the pH the stronger the acid, have the hydronium ion(H+)
Characteristics of bases pH above 7, the higher the pH the stronger the base, have the hydroxide ion OH-)
Alkaline A base
Characteristics of salts pH of 7, neutral substances, function in water balance and as electrolytes
Buffer Substances that resist change in pH
Neutralization reaction Acid reacted with a base creates salt and water
Usefulness of Water Universal solvent; regulates temperature; solubilizes food, some vitamins, and some hormones
Uniqueness of Water Expands when frozen
Uniqueness of Carbon Can form long chains, branched chains, rings, or isomers, and always have four bonds. All life is carbon based.
3 elements in carbohydrates Carbon(C), Hydrogen(H), and Oxygen(O)
"-ose" sugar
Carbohydrates body's fuel
Dehydration synthesis reaction Monosacchaaride+monosaccharide=disaccharide+water
Monosaccharide A simple sugar (glucose, ribose, deoxyribose)
Isomer Molecules formed from the same number and kinds of elements, but in different arrangements
Disaccharide A molecule made of two monosaccharides
Maltose In grains and wheats
Sucrose In sugarcane
Lactose In milk
"-amyl" A starch
Imbibation To drink
Starch A combination of 3-8 glucose molecules
Hydration To add water
Glycogen A form of sugar animals store in skeletal muscle and in the liver
Polysaccharide A complex sugar with cell walls of cellulose
Fats Lipids built from fatty acids and glycerol
Adaptation for mobility Fat
Adaptation to avoid famine Fat
3 types of fat Saturated, unsaturated, and trans
Characteristics of saturated fats No double bonds, solid at room temperature, found in animals, bad for blood vessels
Characteristics of unsaturated fats At least one double bond, liquid at room temperature, carcinogenic
Protein benfits regulation and structure
4 elements of a protein Carbon(C), Hydrogen(H), Oxygen(O), Nitrogen(N)
Number of essential amino acids for humans 10
Protein pathway amino acids>peptides>polypeptides>protein
"-ase" An enzyme
Catalytic enzyme speed up or slow down
Enzyme Biological catalysts that facilitate specific chemical reactions
Cofactors One or more nonprotein components required by enzymes in order to function
Coenzymes (ex) Vitamins B6 and B12
2 types of dietary protein complete and incomplete
sources of complete proteins animal flesh and peanuts
Incomplete proteins Proteins that are lacking in one or more essential amino acids
3 components of a nucleotide Nitrogenous bases. phosphates, and sugar
Location of base pairs form the steps of DNA's helical staircase
Number of pairs in a codon 3
Sugar in DNA deoxyribose
4 bases in DNA adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine
Sugar in RNA ribose
4 bases in RNA adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil
nRNA nuclear ribonucleic acid
mRNA messenger ribonucleic acid
tRNA transfer ribonucleic acid
Vitamin essential organic nutrients needed in small amounts for good health
2 categories of vitamins fat soluble, water soluble
Characteristics of fat soluble vitamins stored by the body, usually not cooked out of food
Characteristics of water soluble vitamins may be cooked out of food, needed on a daily basis
Ex of fat soluble vitamins A, D, E , and K
Ex of water soluble vitamins B, and C
Hormones Chemicals that affect the processes of other cells
2 categories of hormones steroid and protein
2 major minerals calcium and phosporous
Calcium the most abundant mineral in the human body
Electrolytes Salts used in nerve impulse conduction
Ex of electrolytes sodium, chlorine, potassium, calcium
6 elements of living things Carbon(C), Nitrogen(N), Hydrogen(H), Oxygen(O), Sulfur(S), Phosphorous(P)
Number of electrons in each energy shell 2 in the first, 8 in each other
Created by: Marie1412
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