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Biology Chapter 3

Chapter 3 information to study for test

____________________ _____________________ contain carbon and hydrogen. Organic molecules
C6 H12 O6 Glucose
CH4 Methane gas
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and vitamins have ___________ in their structure, making them organic. Carbon
Water and minerals do not have carbon so they are ______________. inorganic
_________________ molecules make up portions of cells, tissues, and organs. Organic
Carbon atom has a total of ____ electrons. ___ in the outer shell. 6 4
____________ _____________ almost always shares electrons with elements such as hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen, Carbon atom
Can bond with as many as ____ other elements. 4
Most often ___________ electrons with other carbon atoms. shares
Chains of carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms. Hydrocarbons
______________ have the same number and kinds of atoms in a variety of arrangements. Isomers
Isomers may have different ____________. properties
Hydrocarbons are highly ________________. versatile.
_____________ and _________________ is determined by the carbon skeleton or backbone. Size shape
_________________ _________________ specific combination of bonded atoms that always has the same chemical properties and always reacts the same way. Functional group
Reactivity of organic molecule largely dependent on attached ________________ groups. functional
Often use __ to stand for the rest of the molecule, the hydrocarbon chain. R
Nonpolar functional groups are ____________________. hydrophobic
Polar functional groups are _______________. hydrophilic
_____________ is found in alcohols and sugars. Hydroxyl
_____________ are found in amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxyl
__________ are found in amino acids and proteins Amino
____________ are found in Amino acid, cysteine, and proteins. Sulfhydryl
_____________ are found in ATP and nucleic acids. Phosphate
The biological molecules of cells are ________________, ______________, _________________, and _____________. Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
____________________ are like Atkins diet or it really means is sugar. Carbohydrates
________________ are like fat or oils. Lipids
_______________ are like meat, eggs, and beans. Proteins
_____________ acids are like DNA or RNA Nucleic
As food is eaten, it is ________________ _______________. broken down.
Subunits or building blocks Monomers
________________ are monomers joined together or finished product. Polymer
For lipids (Diglycerides, triglycerides), the monomers are _______ and _____________ ___________. glycerol fatty acids
For proteins (Polypeptides), the monomers are ______________ _____. amino acids
For Nucleic acids (DNA/RNA), the monomers are _______________, which is made of a pentose sugar, a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group. nucleotides
For carbohydrates (Polysaccharides specifically and disaccharides--depends) the monomers are ____________________. monosaccharides
________________ ______________________ ___________________ joins monomers to form polymers. Dehydration synthesis reaction
Is the _____________ of removing a water molecule Equivalent
Amino acids forming _____________. proteins
Nucleotides forming ______. DNA
Gluccose forming ____________. starch
Fatty acids and glycerol forming a ___________. fat
Dehydration synthesis reaction is the removal of __________. H20
Water and salt mix and dissolves into bigger __________________. molecules.
Lysis means __________. break
___________________ ________________ breaks polymers apart-disassemble polymers. Hydrolysis
________________ is used to break the bond of Hydrolysis. Water
Almost universally used as immediate energy source in living things Carbohydrates
Play ______________ roles (plants and fungi) structural
Polymers of monomers called saccharides or __________. Sugar
Mono means _________. One
Cellulose is so strong, that no animal can break it down except a _________________. termite.
Carbohydrates are made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen or _____. CHO
______________ storage-starch in plants, glycogen in animals. Energy
Energy _____________-sugar. source
________________-_______________ in plants, chitin in animals (exoskeleton) and fungi (cell wall) Structural-cellulose
Single sugar molecule with 3-7 carbon backbone Monosaccharides
_________ has 2 isomers-fructose and galactose Glucose
Types of sugar are __________ fructose
Grain sugar is known as ______________- galactose
Molecules with a similar composition of atoms, but different structures. isomers
_________ use glucose as the energy source of choice. Cells
Ribose C5 H10 O5 and deoxyribose C5 H10 O4 are found in _______ and ____________. RNA DNA
_______________ are 2 monosaccharides bonded together. Disaccharides
Maltose (barley) C12 O11, yeast breaks down maltose in beer for energy and produces ethyl alccohol is called _______________. Fermentation
Table sugar (sugar beets) is ________________. Sucrose
Our bodies ___________ it into glucose and gructose, digest
Lactose is a sugar present in _______. Milk
_________________________________- as energy storage molecules Polysaccharides
Examples of starches are _____________ and ______________. potatoes & pasta
Polysaccharides are also known as __________. Starches
Polymers of monosaccharides are large and can not easily pass thru the plasma membrane and are kept (stored) in the ______. cell
Polysaccharides function as ________ storage molecules. energy
Plants store glucose as ____________. starch
Animals store glucose as _ __________. glycogen
Polysaccharides function as ________________ components. structural
Plant cell walls are ___________. Cellulose
Cellulose is most abundant of all ________________ __________________. organic molecules
Cellulose ___________ only by some microbes. digested
Crab, lobster, insect exoskeletons is known as ________. Chitin
Lipids are all _______________ in water. insoluble
What is the meaning of insoluble. Does not break down
Long nonpolar hydrocarbon chains are like _________ and _____________. oil water
Lipids relative lack of hydrophylic functional groups means? Hate or fear of water.
Lipids are very diverse structures and __________. functions
Fats and oils used for __________-___________ energy storage. long-term
Oil, _____ _______________, may help waterproof skin hair and feathers. we produce
Lipids are made of carbon, hydrogen, and _______. Oxygen
Fats and oils contain two types of subunits molecules: _____________ and _____________ _____________, glycerol fatty acids
Fats and oils are also called ____________________. triglycerides
Triglycerides are composed of _____ glycerol and _____ fatty acids. 1 3
Synthesis and breakdown of __________. fat
A fat (or oil) is formed when three fatty acid _______ react with a glycerol ______ to yield a triglyceride (and three water molecules. molecules molecule
Fatty acids are either __________________ or ________________. saturated unsaturated
Single bond only, no double between carbon atoms making them more tightly packed together as in atherosclerosis are _________. Saturated
Saturated fats are _______ healthy. less
Butter is ___________ at room temperature. solid
Unsaturated fats are ___________ healthy More
One or more double bonds between carbon atoms is ___________. unsaturated.
Oil is ___________ at room temperature. liquid
Trans fatty acids have been artificially hydrogenated to make them more solid by adding __________________. hydrogen.
Oleic acid, a monounsaturated fatty acid (_________ _____________ _________ ) found in canola oil. one double bond
Elaidic acid, a trans fatty acid (one double bond) found in many _______ foods and can lead to heart disease. snack
Trans fat taste good but is _______ fats. bad
Stearic acid, a saturated fatty acid (no double bonds) found in _______. butter.
Proteins have many functions: ____________ (spider webs, hair, skin, tendons) support
Proteins _________________ (enzymes) metabolism
Proteins ____________________ (substances to enter and exit cell) Transport
Proteins _____________ (antibodies) defense
Proteins ______________ (hormones- Example: insulin) regulation
Proteins ______________ (acting and myosin allows muscles to move and contract. motion
Proteins are composed of amino acid ___________________. monomers.
______ different amino acids 20
______ must be gained thru diet (amino acids) 9
_____ we produce in our body. 11
The 9 amino acids are known as ______________. essential
Made of ________________, _________________, ____________, _____________, (sulfhydryl group- SH). carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen
_________ based hormones are steroids and insoluble. Lipid
____________ are protein based and soluble. Others
Steroids are ______________ based hormones. Lipid
Amines and peptide are ________________ based hormones proteins
A compound consisting of two or more amino acids linked in a chain are called __________________. peptides
A peptide is ____ or ____________ amino acids covalently linked. 2 more
A _________ _________-formed by dehydration reaction between two amino acid monomers. peptide bond
_________________ is a chain of many amino acids joined by peptide bonds. Polypeptide
Amino acid sequence determines the final _________ dimensional shape of protein 3
Amino acid plus amino acid is a _________________ _____________ ____________. dehydration synthesis reaction
Dipeptide minus peptide bond is a ______________ ____________ hydrolysis reaction
____________ _______________ for the shape of proteins is amino acids sequence of a chain, Primary structure
__________________ __________________-portions of chain form helices or pleated sheets. Secondary structure
_____________ ______________ overall three-dimensional shape (globular shape) of interacting secondary structures. Tertiary structure
______________________ _____________________ - more than one polypeptide chain interacting (hemoglobin, enzymes) Quaternary structure
Chicken in water with no heat gets soggy. Add heat and it cooks. Amino acids are what is left in water after boiling is known as ____ pleated sheets
______________ ____________ are found in cells. Nucleic acids
Deoxyribonucleic acid stores _______________ information genetic
A _____ is a locus (or region) of DNA. Gene
DNA which is made up of nucleotides and is the ____________ unit of heredity. molecular
________is a code for a sequence of amino acids DNA
Ribonucleic acid is ____________, RNA
RNA helps to make ____________. proteins
RNA is a molecule that aids in _______________ and _______________ DNA into a protein. transcribing translating
Composed of a phosphate, 5-carbon sugar (ribose) and nitrogen-containing base is _________________. Nucleotide
DNA has _____________ sugar. double
RNA has _____________ sugar. single.
Carbohydrates macromolecules of life are: _____________, _____________, and ___________. polysaccharides, disaccharides, and monosaccharides
Lipid macromolecules of life are: _________________, ________ _______, and ___________________. triglycerides, fatty acids, and glycerol.
Proteins macromolecules of life are: _______ and ________ _________. peptides and amino acids
Nucleic acids macromolecules of life are: ___________, ___________, and _____________. RNA, DNA, and Nucleotides
High energy compounds macromolecules of life are: _______, ___________, and _____________. ATP, nucleotide, and phosphate groups.
Created by: jwatts1
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