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gene mutations a change in the sequence of bases in a gene; they can alter the codons on mRNA affecting the resulting protein
translocation TYPE OF CHROMOSOMAL MUTATION- genetic material is exchanged between two nonhomologous chromosomes
deletion TYPE OF CHROMOSOMAL MUTATION- segment of chromosome breaks off
inversion TYPE OF CHROMOSOMAL MUTATION- segment of chromosome breaks off but reattaches upside down
variations genotypic differences between individuals from the same gene pool
point mutation genetic change involving one nucleotide; it can be silent or it can cause a change in one amino acid of the protein
frame shift mutation a genetic mutation involving the addition or loss of nucleotides
population a group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area
gene pool all the genes, including all the different alleles for each gene, that are present in a population at any one time
genetic drift random change in allele frequencies that occurs in small populations
gene flow movement of alleles into or out of a population due to the migration of individuals to or from the population
genetic equilibrium a hypothetical condition where allele frequencies within a population do not change
crossing over process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis.
genetic recombination the result of crossing-over; sexually reproducing species have increased genetic variation because of gene crossover events during meiosis
Created by: RJEstes