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Unit 3 -Test 1

Infectious Disease and Epidemiology

Matured protein molecules that cause brain damage in humans and animals. Can incubate for decades before S/S appear. No current cure. Prions
Needs a host to replicate and survive. Virus
Single cell organism that does not need a host (reproduces independently) Bacteria
What does is mean when a bacteria is Gram positive? Exotoxin producing - release toxin while alive and reproducing
Virus require a host cell (often bacteria to inject its "viron" particle into the host cell which triggers the host cells ______ or _____ to replicate a virus. DNA or RNA
What are some example of diseases cause Gram positive bacteria? botulism, cholera, diphtheria, tetanus
What are some Toxoid immunizations? DPT shot ( diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus)
How do gram negative bacteria work Endotoxin producing - does not release it toxin till the bacteria dies.
What can high levels of gram negative bacteria trigger? inflammatory response leading to septic shock, DIC, ARDS
What two pathogenic micro- organisms reproduce independently like a bacteria but need a host cell for energy like a virus does? Chlamydia and Rickettsia
Chlamydia is a _____ transmitted disease. Sexually
Rickettsia is carried by what and cause what? Carried by ticks and lice and causes Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever and Typhus.
Fungal pathogens are transmitted by _______. Spores ( molds and yeast)
What are the cause of many opportunistic infections in an immunocompromised host? Fungal Pathogens
Women taking antibiotics can develop a vaginal overgrowth of __________. Candida Alcicans
People on chemotherapy are prone to getting oral ______ and other _____ or ______ infections. Thrush, yeast, fungal
Parasitic animals that infect or colonize other animals, which transmit them to humans. In some cases, they directly infect the human host. Protozoal pathogens
Protozoal parasites can be transmitted by? food, water, feces or insects ( worms, ticks, fleas, lice)
What are the 4 stages of infection? Incubation, Prodrome/ prodromal, Acute, Resolution or Convalescence
At what stage of infection would you have the most sever s/s? Maximum effect to the body, Invasive Acute Phase
What is the stage when no s/s are present because the number of pathogens in the body have not reached a large enough number to cause symptoms? Incubation
What stage shows the first onset signs and symptoms of an infection ( malaise, fever) Prodrome or prodromal
What is malaise? general filling of discomfort or illness.
What are the two part of the Acute phase? invasive and decline
What stage is it when the body's defenses begin to overcome the pathogen and S/S resolution or convalescence
Signs are _____ in regards to illness. They can be seen/ felt/heard/smelled objective
Symptoms are ______. Means they cannot be seen/felt/heard/smelled or measured by objective instruments. subjective
Temperature, weight, wound condition, pulse rate and breathing sounds are example of what? Signs (objective)
Pain is always a _____ because the patient is the only one to experience it. symptom (subjective)
What is the study of health in populations tho understand the cause and patterns of health and illness. to get the the root of a public health problem. Epidemiology
What is the chain of infection sequence? 1. agent leaves reservoir or host through portal of exit 2. conveyed by some mode of transmission 3. Enters through portal of entry to infect a susceptible host
Feces, urine, saliva, expired air, blood, semen, urogenital secretion are examples of? Portal of exit
A _______ is any arthropod (insects or arachnids) that transmits a disease through feeding active. Vector
Vectors general become infected by a disease while feeding on what? infected vertebrates.
mosquitoes, fleas, lice, biting flies, bugs, mites ticks (all blood sucking) are example of what Vectors
_______ is the habitat in which the agent normally lives, grows, and multiples. Carries of the disease. Reservoir.
What are the 3 types of reservoirs. Human, Animal, Environment
What are some diseases that are transmitted from person to person without intermediaries? sexually transmitted diseases, measles, mumps, streptococca and many respiratory infections.
What are Fomites? inanimate objects that pathogen live on (door knobs, bedding, drinking glasses, stair rails)
________ in an incidence of ill health Morbidity
____________ in an incidence of death. Mortality
What is the simultaneous presence of 2+ morbid conditions in the same patient that may complicate the patient hospital stay. The presence could make the primary condition harder to treat Comorbidity
What are the three parts of the epidemiologic triangle? host, agent, environment
Define host The who = Person or population with the disease
Define agent The what = the disease causing organism
Define environment The Where - place in which the host and agent interact
What is the route by which an infectious agent can infect a susceptible animal. The port on entry.
What are the three type of Transmission precautions Airborne, Droplet, contact
What is the mnemonic for Airborne Precautions? What does it stand for. "You're On-The-Air with MTV " M - Measles (Rubeola) (Its all about ME on MTV) Tb- tuberculosis (care provider wears N95 mask in Pt's room. Pt wears standard mask in public.) Varicella - Chicken pox ( also us contact precautions)
What is the minimum precaution for Airborne transmission? Hepa/N95 mask *** negative pressure room with 6-12 exchanges/hour
What is the mnemonic for Droplet precautions? What does it stand for "MR. PIMP drops off pro's" MENinggitis (most MEN are pimps) Rubella P - Pertussis (whooping cough) I - Influenza M- Mumps (lovely lady lumps) P - Pheumonia
Many droplet pathogen require droplet and _______ precautions. contact
What are the precautions for droplet. cohort mask - gown, gloves, eye protection as needed
What is the mnemonic for contact precautions? What does it stand for? "MRS.WEE" M - Multidrug resistant organisms (MDRO) R - respiratory infection S - skin infection W - wound infection E - enteric infection - clostridium difficile E - eye infection - Conjunctivitis
What are the contact precautions? gown, gloves, shoe/hair covers as needed
How do you get naturally acquired active immunity? Naturally acquired active immunity come from infections: contact with the pathogen.
How do humans acquire natural passive immunity? Antibodies pass from mother to fetus in the placenta or through breast feeding.
How do humans acquire artificial active immunity? Vaccines: dead or attenuated pathogens
How do humans acquire passive artificial immunity? injections of immune serum (gamma globulin)
Vaccines provide protection against viruses. They are either dead or ____. attenuated
Vaccines trigger antibodies against viruses. What are some examples? Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) vaccines.
What is the protection against bacteria? Toxoids
What are some examples that we would use toxoids for? Tetanus, Pertussis, Diphtheria
What are the 4 types of hypersensitivities? ACID Anaphylactic/ allergic: Type I Cytotoxic: Type II Immune complex disease: Type III Delayed hypersensitivity (cell mediated): Type IV
What are some example of type 1 hypersensitivity? Asthma, bee stings in sensitized person, pollen exposure or food allergies.
This hypersensitivity occurs in minutes. Histamine driven. Reaction can be mild to life threatening. Can cause vasodialation that can lead to circulatory shock. Type 1 Hypersensitivity or Anaphylactic/ Allergic
Antibody mediated response to an antigen on a cell surface. Antibodies attack the antigen and also kills the cell to which it is attached. What type of hypersensitivity is these. Type II or Cytotoxic
What are two examples of Cytotoxic hypersensitivities? Rh positive mother develops antibodies against her Rh-negative baby and wrong blood transfusion.
What hypersensitivity happens when an antibody binds to an antigen that makes a complex the body cannot absorb. The result is an inflammatory response. Type III hypersensitivity or Immune complex disease - these complexes cause damage to organs and blood vessels
What are some autoimmune type III examples? Rheumatoid Arthritis, lupus, glomerulonephritis
Kidney damage or vasculitis is cause by what type of hypersensitivity? Type III or Immune complex disease
This type of hypersensitivity is cell mediated and happens when t cell lymphocytes attack some type of virus or microbe. Can also be triggered by contact with dermatitis (poison ivy). Takes 24 to 72 hours for symptoms to show. Type IV or Delayed Hypersensitivity
Anaphylactic shock can occur during what hypersensitivity? Type I or IV
Why is the reaction delayed in delayed hypersensitivity? migration of macrophages and T cells to location of antigens
Body is unable to distinguish self from foreign. Cells of the immune system attack various part of the body.. There are no cures currently. Autoimmune disease
__________Autoimmune Disease affect all or multiple body systems Systemic
What are 3 of the most common systemic AI Diseases? Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) - most common - 1% of world population Type I Diabetes Lupus ( systemic lupus erythematosus - SLE)
List the most common Organ/ specific AI diseases and the System they effect. Inflammatory Bowel Disease ( IBS) and Crohns Disease (GI System) Psoriasis (skin) Multiple Sclerosis: Myasthenia Gravis (nervous system) Graves' Disease: Hashimotos's Disease (thyroid)
What drugs in in -mab? Monoclonal Antibodies (remember -mab = must avoid drugs)
What are some facts you should know about AI disease? -Body makes antigens against self -runs in family (genetic predispositions) - Trigger by chemical/biological substances (virus, bacteria infections) - More common in women of childbearing age. (16 to 35) - All ages effected
What is often used to treat AI disease Immunosuppression drugs (steroids and methotrexate) and monoclonal antibodies
What does HIV stand for. Human immunodeficiency Virus
How is aids transmitted. - sexual transmission (oral, anal, vaginal) - syringe sharing -baby to mother in ( in utero or during breast feeding)
What does exposure to the HIV virus lead to? antibody formation (window period) - infectino is present and transmittable but not detectable by HIV screening test yet.
Refers to the ability to detect the HIV antibody in the blood and typically occurs in 1-3 months but can be delayed for up to 6 months. Seroconversion
What s/s often accompany seroconversion and why. Flu like s/s because B cells are starting to attack the virus. Note the disease can be latent for years.
If a person has Seroconcersion does that mean he or she has AIDS? NO!!!!
What is the typical path for AIDS/HIV 1) HIV infection ( primary -infection enters the body) 2) Seroconversion (Latency -1 to 6 months when body is making antibodies) 3) Aids Disease (Overt - HIV becomes AIDS - CD4 helper T -cells levels fall below 200 & opportunistic infections happen
What does AIDS stand for? Acquired immune Deficiency Syndrome
What are the three things that are needed to diagnose AIDS? 1. HIV test is positive 2. Opportunistic infection is present 3. CD4 cell count less than 200
How do we test for HIV? Elisa - 1st test identifies various antibodies (seroconversion) - if antibodies are present test in repeated. If 2nd test is positive a Western Blot (WB) test is preformed. If WB detects virus then HIV in confirmed.
What account for a majority of deaths in AIDS Pts? opportunistic infections
What is a Kaposi Sarcoma? A cancer that causes patches of abnormal tissue to grow under the skin in the lining of the mouth, nose and throat or other organs. AIDS Pts are more susceptible
If there are insufficient CD4 (Helper T Cells) what cannot function to kill HIV. CD8 ( Killer Cells)
CD4 level of less than 200 means what? The immune system is severely weakened and the body at greater risk of contraction an opportunistic infection.
This type of cell has glycoprotein on the surface. CD8 or Killer Cells
CD8 ( killer cells) are instrumental in what? Fighting cancer and viruses. They also produce antiviral substances that help fight off the foreign invader.
What is the treatment for AIDS/HIV Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) or highly active ART (HAART). When taken in combination they can prevent the growth of the virus. Usually used in combination of 3 or more. Help prevent drug resistance.
pinpoint hemorrhages of small capillaries in the skin, conjunctiva of the eyes,or mucous Petechiae
Can be a sign on anemia as a result of hypoxia. Pale gums
Created by: sbertelsen



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