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True or False: RNA reads the DNA code and controls the production of proteins. True
Where does protein synthesis take place? Protein synthesis occurs in the cytoplasm of a cell.
Before RNA can be used in protein synthesis, what must happen? It must go through transcription.
Explain Transcription. During transcription, segments of the DNA molecule serve as a template. The template is used to produce a complementary RNA strand. The RNA moves to the cytoplasm for protein synthesis.
How does transcription begin? Transcription begins when the enzyme RNA polymerase binds to DNA. The enzyme separates the DNA strands. RNA polymerase adds complementary base pairs to form a strand of RNA.
What is the first step that must occur to process the mRNA molecule in preparation for protein synthesis? Extra sequences at one or both ends of the primary transcript are trimmed off. Specialized enzymes called exoribonucleases cut the RNA strand at specified locations.
What is the second step that must occur to process the mRNA molecule in preparation for protein synthesis? Sections of sequences in the middle of RNA are edited out. Enzymes join, or splice, the remaining sequences to form the complete RNA.
What is the third step that must occur to process the mRNA molecule in preparation for protein synthesis? RNA nucleotides can be modified at either end or within the body of the strand. Modification on the ends, prevents further degradation by exoribonucleases. Modifications specialize RNA for different functions it will perform during protein synthesis.
What is the function of mRNA? It contains a sequence of nucleotides that direct the assembly of amino acids into proteins. Messenger RNA carries this information from the cell nucleus to ribosomes in the cytoplasm.
What is the function of tRNA? It transfers amino acids to the ribosome as the protein is built. Transfer RNA connects each three-letter genetic code carried in mRNA to a corresponding amino acid. There are 64 different three-letter codes for 20 amino acids.
What is the function of rRNA? It is present in the sub units of a ribosome that allow for decoding of mRNA. Ribosomal RNA also interacts with tRNA during protein synthesis to help form peptide bonds between amino acids.
True or False: Decoding the message carried by mRNA into the proteins needed to carry out life processes is called translation. True.
What are the four nucleotide bases present in RNA? A, U, G, C.
What are codons? Three letter increments read on the RNA strand.
True or False: There are more amino acids than codons. False. There are more codons than amino acids (64 codons, only 20 amino acids) so most amino acids have more than one codon specific to them.
Where are the mRNA transcripts transported after transcription? Following transcription, the mRNA transcripts are transported from the nucleus to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), specifically the rough ER.
What direction does translation occur? Translation occurs in sequence and only in one direction, known as the 5’ to 3’ direction.
What is the first step in the translation process? A ribosome attaches to the 5’ end of mRNA at a specific sequence that is located upstream from the “start” codon.
What is the second step in the translation process? Once the start codon is read, construction of the polypeptide begins. The ribosome moves along the mRNA strand and tRNAs with the corresponding anticodon bring the correct amino acid to the ribosome.
What are anticodons? Anticodons are a complementary set of three nucleotides in the anticodon region of tRNA.
What is the third step in the translation process? The ribosome attaches an amino acid from each tRNA to the next amino acid with a peptide bond. The ribosome breaks the bond between tRNA and its amino acid. The tRNA is released and the ribosome is available to bind the next tRNA dictated by the mRNA code
What is the fourth step in the translation process? The ribosome continues to move from the 5’ end of mRNA toward the 3’ end. Construction of the protein continues until the ribosome reaches a “stop” codon. Then, both the protein and mRNA strand are released from the ribosome.
True or False: The identity, physical appearance, and performance of every organism is determined by the genetic information stored in its DNA, which determines the fate and function of each cell. True.
What do enzymes do? Enzymes catalyze a wide range of biochemical reactions in an organism’s cells. (They provide energy for these reactions to happen)
What is a genome? The total set of genes of a cell or of an organism. These are arranged in chromosomes made of double-stranded DNA spooled around special proteins.
What is the smallest unit of information stored in DNA? A gene.
What is gene expression? Gene expression is the process of using the information stored in each gene to instruct the synthesis of each gene product.
What is the Central Dogma? The Central Dogma states that DNA provides the template of instructions for the synthesis of RNA (by transcription), and messenger RNA (mRNA) provides the template of instructions for the synthesis of proteins (by translation).
What determines the traits of an organism? The end products produced, usually proteins, determine the traits of an organism.
True or False: Some genes are expressed by transcription into transfer RNA (tRNA) or ribosomal RNA (rRNA), NOT mRNA. True.
True or False: EVERY step involved in the expression of a gene is a step that can be regulated. TRUE.
True or false: DNA structure does not determine protein structure. False! DNA structure determines protein structure.
Explain mutations. Mutations are heritable, abrupt changes in the type, structure, sequence, or number of the nucleotides of DNA. They may benefit or have no effect on the organism.
What are the two main categories of mutations? Gene mutations and chromosomal mutations.
Explain gene mutations. Gene mutations are errors that affect only a single gene. The error is usually at a single point of the DNA molecules. These errors include substitutions, insertions, or deletions of the DNA nucleotides.
Explain chromosomal mutations. Chromosomal mutations produce changes in the structure of chromosomes. Chromosomal mutations include amplifications (such as duplications), deletions, and translocation.
Environmental factors that cause mutations on the molecular level are due to what? Tautomerism, Depurination, Deamination, and Slipped strand mispairing.
What are some factors that affect gene expression? Internal factors such as metabolism or gender. External influences could include factors such as food, substances in the environment, light, and temperature.
True or False: Food availability can influence gene expression. True.
True or False: Chemicals or drugs in the environment can also change gene expression. True.
True or False: Temperature cannot alter gene expression. False. Temperature can also alter gene expression.
True or False: Light may alter gene expression. True.
Ligases are enzymes that connect strands of nucleic acids. During which step of protein synthesis are ligases used? RNA processing
Place the steps of transcription in order: 1. RNA polymerase attaches to the DNA template; 2. The mRNA strand moves out of the nucleus; 3. Base pairing forms mRNA; 4. The DNA strand separates. 1, 4, 3, 2
One reason chromosomal mutations are considered large-scale is because ________. They can affect more than one gene
What type of mutation could cause the 3-nucleotide reading frame of tRNA to be shifted? Deletion of one or more nucleotides during replication
Evolution occurs when nature selects ________________________. Mutations that increase reproduction
Would improper splicing of mRNA prevent an mRNA from being transported to the rough endoplasmic reticulum in the cytosplasm? Yes.
What begins the process of translation? A ribosome reads the codon sequence at the 5' end of the mRNA
What would happen if introns were not removed during RNA processing? The protein would be incorrect and the protein might not function
In 2011, a tsunami hit Japan damaging nuclear power plants, but the level of radiation leakage was uncertain. What most likely indicates that radiation leaks did occur? An increase in the incidence of cancer
Which of the following characterizes the process of trimming an mRNA transcript? The transcript can be trimmed at both ends
What initiates translation? A ribosome reads a start codon
Created by: JustEmma
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