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Unit 1A - Test 1

Disease and Cellular Response

What are the 6 cellular adaptations listed in our notes? (HHHAMD) Homeostasis, Hyperplasia, Hypertrophy, Atrophy, Metaplasia and Dysplasia
What is the body’s ability to maintain a dynamic steady state of internal balance or equilibrium? Homeostasis
What is cell replication resulting in more cells in an organ or tissue? (increased number of cells) Hyperplasia
What is the increased size of cell due to increased workload or a pathological condition? (Most common in cardiac and skeletal muscle tissue) Hypertrophy
Reduced cell size as a result of disuse, decrease blood flow, malnutrition, ect is referred to as what? Atrophy
Replacement of one cell type with another that can better endure the stress but usually doesn’t work as well as the original tissues is called what? Metaplasia
Abnormal cell growth of specific tissue resulting in abnormal, size, shape or appearance is called what? Dysplasia
What are some things that can result from hyperplasia? Enlarge uterus during pregnancy or Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) – enlarge prostate.
Hypertrophy is most common in what two type so of muscle? Cardiac and Muscle Tissue
What causes metaplasia? Chronic inflammation or irritation resulting in a callous or scar tissue.
Dysplasia often proceeds what? Cancerous change
Hyperplasia and ________ often occur together Because increase number of cell often results in increased size. Hypotrophy.
Why would cells that are atrophied be more compatible with survival? Smaller cells would result in less oxygen consumption and less protein synthesis
What is the mechanism of cellular injury that has a highly reactive chemical molecule with an unpaired electron that pulls electrons off of the healthy cell molecules resulting in cancers or other deceased states? Free Radical Injury
Cellular oxygen deprivation is what type of cell injury? Hypoxic Cell injury
Hypoxic Cell injuries have what type of response? inflammatory
What happens in impaired Calcium function? Calcium builds up in cell due to the break down of the Mg/Ca Pump. This results in inappropriate activation of cellular enzymes leading to cell damage.
Reversible Cell injuries, where the body can repair itself and return to normal, are the result of an injured/ stressed having abnormal amounts of____,_____ and ____ Water, Lipids or Calcium
Intracellular swelling is usually caused by what type of injury? Hypoxic
What could cause Na+ build of in a cell leading to more water in the cell? Break down of the Na/K pump
Lipids collecting in the cells can lead to what? Impaired Cell Function
Calcium builds up in cells due to the breakdown of what? Mg/Ca pump
Calcium build up in a cell causes what? Inappropriate activation of cellular enzyme leading to cell damage
What are the two types of irreversible cell injury? Apoptosis and Necrosis
What is Apoptosis? Controlled cell death (implosion). Cell membrane remains intact and nothing is released in the extracellular fluid resulting in no inflammatory response.
What is Necrosis Uncontrolled cell death (explosion). Cell membrane does not remained intact and cell content in released into extracellular fluid resulting in an inflammatory response
What are the outermost tails of the chromosome arms that are shortened during each replication of a cell? Telomeres
What are 4 examples of damage caused by cellular ageing? What are the resulting effects? - Decrease elasticity of blood vessels -atherosclerosis & high BP - Loss of bowel motility -chronic constipation - Loss of muscle mass leading muscle weakness - decrease balance - Loss of subcutaneous fat resulting in temp regulation problems
Inflammation is what type of response? Non specific
Has inflammation been implicated as the underlying process for health issues like Diabetes, Alzheimer’s, Arthritis, Stroke, Cancer and Cardiovascular disease? Yes
What is the body’s natural response to injury, toxin, stress or trauma? What is necessary for proper tissue repair and recovery? Inflammation
T or F – As long as it is not chronic inflammation is health. True
What is the source of all blood components? Bone Marrow
Where are T-Cells from lymphocytes produced? Thymus Gland
Are Lymph Nodes, Tonsils and the Spleen organs of the immune system? Yes
What are the 3 cells of inflammation? Endothelial Cells, Thrombocytes, Leukocytes
Endothelial Cell line the blood vessels and produce chemicals that what? 1) Vasodilation or vasoconstriction 2) Cause blood thinning and prevent clotting 3) Vessel wall permeability 4) Control inflammatory response
What are thrombocytes responsible for? Clotting and releasing over 300 inflammatory mediators
What are the major cellular components of the inflammatory response? Leukocytes
What is the term used for higher than normal production of white blood cells? Leukocytosis
What is higher than normal WBC usually indicate? Inflammation or infection
What are the two classification of Leukocytes? Granulocytes and Agranulocytes
What are the signs and symptoms of inflammation? Swelling Heat Altered Function Redness Pain
What are the 3 types of granulocytes? GRANpa B.E.N Basophils, Eosinophils, Neutrophils
Neutrophils are the first responders and make up about 60% of WBC. They are increase during what type of bacterial infection? Acute
What 2 Granulocytes are elevated in allergic reactions? Basophils and eosinophils
What granulocyte is elevated during a parasite infection? Eosinophils
What are the 2 type of Agranulocytes? And GRANma Loves Money Lymphocytes and monocytes
Lymphocytes (30% of WBC) include __and __ cells. T and B
What Agranulocyte is increase in viral and chronic infections? Lymphocytes
Monocytes circulate in the blood stream and become what when called on for action? Macrophages
What do macrophages do? Phagocytosis of foreign particles
What are the two types of lymphocytes? B and T Cells
T Cells are produced from what in the thymus gland? Lymphocytes
These cells remain in lymph nodes for many years after infection. When an infection happens again these cells produce a rapid response by making clones. T memory cells
What do Helper T Cells do? Activation/ regulation of T and B cells
What do Killer T cells do? Attack virus infected cells and tumor cells. Ingest antigens via phagocytosis.
What cells attack abnormal cell such as cancer cells. They are lymph node cells that can destroy cancer cells and different cell surface markers then killer T Cells. Natural Killer Cells
What cell prevent autoimmunity and return the functioning of the immune system to normal operation after infection? Suppressor T Cells
B cells are back up responders and make what? Antibodies
B cells are part of the ___ immune response Humoral
B Cells are produced from the lymphocytes in the __ Bone Marrow
B Cells release ______ and assist in the activation of ___ cells. antibodies, T cells
the difference between an Antigen and an Antibody. Antigens (antibody generators) trigger the body to make antibodies. Antibodies are complements to antigens. Antigens (lock) Antibodies (key)
____is anything that triggers the body to make antibodies. Antigen
Where do antigens reside? On the surface of cells
Antigens tell the body what? They are on the surface of cells and tell the body if something belongs or need to be gotten rid of. Antigens let the body know if it should attack or destroy or leave a cell alone.
Antibodies (immunoglobins/ B Cells Lymphocytes) are complements to what? Antigens
How do antibodies destroy invading foreign cells? They bind to antigens and prevent the cell from reproducing
How is chronic inflammation different from acute inflammation? Chronic inflammation last for weeks or even years, overworking the immune system. As a result, the body stops promoting healing which leads to tissue damage. This leaves the person more prone to infections because the immune system is weakened
Acute inflammation aims primarily at what? Removing the injury cause agent and limiting tissue damage.
Why is chronic inflammation bad? Overworks the immune system, weakening it, leaving the body more open to infections ect.
What are the two stage of acute inflammation? Vascular and Cellular
Vascular phase cause local _____ and _______ that leads to increase blood flow that results in SHARP Vasodilation, Capillary permeability
Vasodilation causes what? Redness and heat
Plasma brings WBCs and proteins to cite cause what? The result is because of proteins being pushed from blood vessels into tissues. Swelling and pain
Altered function happens because of swelling. The trapped fluid that cause swelling keeps what from happening? The infection from spreading
What are chemical mediators we need to know? Histamines, serotonin, cytokines and the “kinins”
Histamines, serotonin, cytokines and “kinins” control the inflammation response through what 4 things? 1.Vasodilation – causing more swelling 2.Capillary permeability – contributes to swelling 3.Clotting – blood flow slows down = clotting 4.White blood cells congregate – chemical mediators signal WBCs to congregate in the area. Contributes to swelling
Explain Cellular phase. 1.Leukocytes are delivered to the site of infection/injury and emigrate through the blood vessel wall into tissues. 2. WBC’s move through the tissues by chemotaxis or moving along the concentration gradient. 3. Local leukocyte activation and phagocyto
What are the 3 possible outcomes of local acute inflammation? Resolves on its own Heals but with substantial scarring or fibrosis Progresses to chronic inflammation
What are some characteristics of inflammation in the chronic phase? Can last weeks, months, years or even a lifetime. Recurrent and persistent. Exacerbation and remission the don’t heal completely during flare ups
What are some examples of chronic inflammation? Toe fungal infection, stomach ulcers, acne, gout, osteoarthritis
Explain the difference between local and systemic inflammation. Local –localized area. SHARP. Often visible on surface ex: insect bits or internal -not visible inflamed gallbladder Systemic – involves the entire body. s/s fever, increase white blood cell cells, increase C-reactive proteins. Example sepsis
______provide protective functions during systemic inflammation/infection. Proteins
The_____ makes Fibrinogen, C-Reactive Proteins and serum amyloid A proteins which are acute-phase proteins. Liver
What is the most common objective sign of systemic inflammation, especially during the acute response phase? Fever
What is the normal range for white blood cells? 5,000 to 10,000
What is the life span for neutrophils? 24 to 48 hours
A WBC “with differential” shows what? Various Leukocytes and not neutrophils
What are “Bands” and what do they indicate? They are immature WBC and they indicate that the body has run out of adult neutrophils
In chronic inflammation, a WBC blood test show what? Elevated Lymphocyte levels --- NOT Neutrophils
What are some things that can cause chronic inflammation? Recurrent and persistent infection, persistent exposer to damaging source, obesity,
Increase neutrophils means? Increased lymphocytes means? Increase Eosinophils means ? If WBC is below normal this means ? 1.Acute bacterial infection 2.Viral or chronic bacterial infection 3.Parasite infection or allergic reaction 4.Overwhelming infection that has exhausted WBC supply or bone marrow is not able to keep up production of WBCs.
What is SIRS? Systemic inflammatory response syndrome – worst case scenario.
What things lead to the activation of the inflammatory cascade? Trauma, inflammation or infection
When Cytokines (chemical mediators) are released into circulation what are 4 things that happen and what do they cause? 1.Vasodilation – massive generalize vasodilation – extremely low BP 2. Capillary Permeability – increased- fluids leaking into tissues 3. Multiple Organ failure - don’t receive enough blood 4. Circulatory shock – not enough BP for circulation = Death
What is the most objective sign of systemic inflammation, especially during the acute phase? Fever
What are some other conditions that can induce a fever? Allergic reaction, autoimmune disease, trauma, cancer, exposure to the sun, intense exercise, hormonal imbalance, childbirth, surgery, certain drugs
What is anything that can induce a fever called? Pyrogen
Pyrogen can be microbes or what? Chemical mediators
Fevers can also be caused by damage to the _____ which could result from a head injury, stroke, brain tumor, ect. Hypothalamus
What is an Interleukin 1? A type of cytokine that is a chemical mediator that directly effects the set point of the hypothalamus.
Thyroid storm, head injury, burns, some drugs can cause what? Hypermetabolic state
What is hyperthermia primarily cause by? Bacterial or viral infection
Why do chills happen Blood moves to the bodies core
What is a fever cause by? Cytokines changing the body’s temperature “set point
What is our normal temperature range? 97 to 99.5 F
Fever without localizing signs or symptoms. Usually have a rapid onset and present for less than a week. Fever without a source
Chills without and elevated temperature can be a sign of what? Infection especially in older adults
What are the 5-standard test for determining causes of elevated temperatures? (BULCC) 1.Blood cultures – check for pathogen in the blood 2.Urinalysis – test urine for infection 3.Lumbar puncture – check spinal fluid for infection 4.Complete blood count – Condition of RBCs and WBCs as well as platelets 5. Chest x-rays – check for pun
What are 4 examples of damage caused by cellular aging? What are the resulting effects? - Decrease elasticity of blood vessels -atherosclerosis & high BP - Loss of bowel motility -chronic constipation
Created by: sbertelsen



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