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Weathering/Erosion

Weathering and Erosion Terms

TermDefinition
Erosion the gradual destruction or demolition by wind, water or other natural agents.
Solifluction the gradual movement of wet soil or other material down a slope, especially where frozen subsoil acts as a barrier to the percolation of water.
Mudflow a fluid or hardened stream or avalanche of mud.
Dissolution the act or process of resolving or dissolving into parts or elements.
Soil Creep the slow downward progression of rock and soil down a low grade slope; it can also refer to slow deformation of such materials as a result of prolonged pressure and stress.
Oxidation the reaction of a substance with oxygen. This is the process that causes rust.
Slump a form of mass wasting that occurs when a coherent mass of loosely consolidated materials or rock layers moves a short distance down a slope.
Landslide the movement of rock, earth, or debris down a sloped section of land.
Mass Wasting the geomorphic process by which soil, sand, regolith, and rock move downslope typically as a solid, continuous or discontinuous mass, largely under the force of gravity, but frequently with characteristics of a flow as in debris flows and mudflows.
Thermal Expansion When water heats up, it expands.
Hydration a process of erosion whereby flowing water moves unconsolidated material due to forces of drag.
Abrasion the process of scraping or wearing something away. When glaciers scrape across a surface.
Differential Weathering the difference in degree of discolouration, disintegration, etc., of rocks of different kinds exposed to the same environment.
Frost Shatter/Wedge the meltwater or precipitation that comes in contact with the ground and collects in cracks caused by weathering. As this water freezes during diurnal temperature cycles, it expands, widening the crack.
Ice Wedging is a crack in the ground formed by a narrow or thin piece of ice ground level and extends downwards into the ground up to several meters. During the winter months, the water in the ground freezes and expands.
Scree/Talus a mass of small loose stones that form or cover a slope on a mountain.
Weathering is the process of weakening and breaking up rocks. It is the physical and chemical breakdown of rocks and minerals at or near earth's surface.
Karst Topography formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite, and gypsum. It is characterized by underground drainage systems with sinkholes and caves. Subterranean drainage may limit surface water, with few to no rivers or lakes.
Biological Weathering is the weakening and subsequent disintegration of rock by plants, animals and microbes.
Chemical Weathering is what happens when rocks are broken down and chemically altered.The different types of chemical weathering, including hydrolysis, oxidation, carbonation, acid rain and acids produced by lichens.
Created by: brylee.martin