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CH6.3-6.6 Vocab

QuestionAnswer
Trait distinguishing characteristics that are inherited, such as eye color, leaf shape, and tail length
Genetics the study of biological inheritance patterns and variation in organisms
Purebred genetically uniform/identical
Cross the mating of two organisms
Law of Segregation Mendel's first law: Organisms inherit two copies of each gene, one from each parent; Organisms donate only one copy of each gene in their gametes, thus the two copies of each gene segregate during gamete formation
Gene a piece of DNA that provides a set of instructions to a cell to make a certain protein
Allele any of the alternative forms of a gene that may occur at a specific locus
Homozygous two of the same alleles at a specific locus
Heterozygous two different alleles at a specific locus
Genome all of an organism's genetic material
Genotype the genetic makeup of a specific type of genes
Phenotype the physical characteristics, or traits, of an individual organism
Dominant the allele that is expressed when two different alleles, or two dominant alleles, are present
Recessive the allele that is only expressed when two copies of it are present
Punnett Square a grid system for predicting all possible genotypes resulting from a cross
Monohybrid Cross crosses that examine the inheritance of only one specific trait
Testcross a cross between an organism with an unknown genotype and an organism with the recessive phenotype
Dihybrid Cross crosses that examine the inheritance of two different traits
Law of Independent Assortment allele pairs separate independently of each other during gamete formation, or meiosis
Probability the likelihood that a particular event will happen; predicts the average number of occurrences, not the exact number
Crossing Over the exchange of chromosome segments between homologous chromosomes during Prophase I of Meiosis I
Genetic Linkage the statement that genes located close together tend to be inherited together
Created by: CasavantJ22