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Taxonomy/Cladograms

Taxonomy and Introduction to Cladograms

QuestionAnswer
Who is the father of taxonomy? Carolus Linnaeus
Taxonomy: Systematic process of classifying living organisms into different groups based on physical traits and genetic relationships.
How are the levels of organization organized? The levels start off broad and get narrower and more specific.
What is the highest/broadest level of organization? Domain
What is called when classifying organisms by genus and species? Binomial nomenclature
In the scientific name for organisms what part is capitalized? Genus
In the scientific name for organisms what part is lowercase? Species
How is the scientific name of an organism written? Italics
What are scientists that study taxonomy and use the classification system to identify and name organisms called? Taxonomists
What are the 3 main domains? Bacteria, archaea, and eukarya
What type of organisms are in domain bacteria? Unicellular prokaryotes
What do organisms in domain bacteria lack? Cell nucleus and membrane bound organelles
While organisms in domain bacteria lack a few things what surrounds it? A thick cell wall
What type of organisms is found in domain archaea? Unicellular prokaryotes
Just like a cell in domain bacteria, organisms in domain archaea have cell walls. But they lack something that differentiates the organisms from those in domain bacteria, what is the substance they lack? Petidoglycan
What is a distinct feature of organisms in domain archaea? They are able to survive in extreme environments.
The cell membranes of organisms in domain archaea have something that is not found in any other organism's cell membrane. What is it? Lipids
What type of organisms are mainly in domain eukarya? Multicellular (can be times when it is unicellular)
What do the organisms in domain eukarya have in their cells that no other organisms in the other 2 domains? Nucleus and membrane bound organelles
How are the organisms in domain eukarya sorted out into kingdoms? Based on the most general characteristics
What are the 4 kingdoms of Eukaryotes? Protista, Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia
What type of organisms are in kingdom Protista? Unicellular
What kingdom does phytoplankton , red and brown algae, and dinoflagellates fall into? Kingdom Protista
What organisms are found in kingdom plantae? Plants
Autotrophs Gain energy by creating their own food
How are the cells of plants unique from other eukaryotes? They are surrounded by a rigid cell wall made of cellulose.
What does the cell wall in plants help the plant with? Gives the plant support and structure.
What type of organisms are found in kingdom fungi? Majority multicellular, except for yeasts which are unicellular
Organisms in kingdom fungi have cell walls but they are made from something different than that in kingdom plantae. What are they made of? Chitin instead of cellulose
Heterotrophs Gain energy by consuming other organisms
Fungi is different from most eukaryotes in the fact that it grows long______________ called_______________. Filaments and hyphae
Fungi releases enzymes. Why are the enzymes important? Enzymes are important for decomposition
What do the organisms in kingdom fungi help with? Helps maintain balance with organisms like plants that take nutrients from soil.
What are examples of organisms found in kingdom animalia? Humans and animals
What types of organisms are found in kingdom animalia? Multicellular organisms that are heterotrophic
What do organisms in kingdom animalia lack? Cell wall
Sessile Immobile fixed in one place.
Setae Hair-like bristles used for movement.
Dichotomous keys are based off traits
Cladogram Shows evolutionary relationships .
Cladograms are used to show what? How similarities are derived from common ancestry
Places where a lineage branches off is called.. nodes
If there are less nodes it means... The organisms are more closely related
Created by: Doerre91104