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Remediation for Midterm

What is remediation? A set of cost effective procedures to remove, reduce, or neutralize a hazard.
What is reclamation? Reconstructing the landscape to pre existing conditions.
Give an example of a chemical dispersant. Corexit
What is the problem with corexit? It may be a carcinogen
What does a chemical dispersant do? It causes a thick layer to split into smaller droplets and disperse.
What are three off shore remediation techniques? Booms/skimmers, burn it, and chemical dispersants.
Factors affecting remediation method: inorganics will not degrade; Volatiles can be removed with vapor extraction; solubles more likely to degrade and disperse; halogenated compounds less soluble.
In situ v ex situ in situ means in place. ex situ is out of place.
What is bioremediation? Using natural processes often involving bacteria.
What is biostimulation? Adding nutrients to aid natural processes
What is bioaugmentation? Adding foreign bacteria to the subsoil
Most projects use which method? Dig and dump
Factors affecting excavation rate: Material type and excavator size
Characteristics of landfills that can hold hazardous wastes: double liner; leachate collection; leak detection; water monitors; impermeable covers; release response plans
What does NORMS mean? Naturally occurring radioactive materials
Name a bacterium often used in bioremediation? Pseudomonas
The C:N ratio needed by microbes 8:1
What is cometabolism? The microbe relies on primary substrate to transform compounds
Example of cometabolism Methanotrophs use methane to produce methane monooxygenase, which degrades TCE
The first order kinetic equation C=Coe^-kt
How do you calculate the half life of a chemical? 0.693/k
If the terminal electron acceptor is not oxygen, what kind of bacterium is it? Anaerobic
Explain reductive dechlorination A cometabolic anaerobe replaces Cl with H in a series of steps
Name a bacterium that can perform reductive dechlorination? Clostridium bifermentans
Explain metal bioimmobilization Microbes precipitate metals by changing their valency
Name a bacterial family which can immobilize metals Geobacteraceae
What is the ideal moisture content for bioremediation? 25% of the water holding capacity
Examples of ex situ bioremediation Landfarms, biopiles, compost, and bioreactors
What is a land farm? excavated soil is applied to lined beds in 45 cm lifts
Differentiate between a biopile and a landfarm. Landfarms typically are spread out and use agricultural equipment, where as biopiles are mounds that use aerated pipes.
Differentiate between compost and a biopile. Compost is much more thermophilic and uses bulk ingredients like straw, but biopiles are more mesophilic and manure is the only available amendment
What is a bioreactor? Bioreactors treat contaminated slurries
Why might you use a bioreactor over an in situ method? They can treat low permeability/heterogenous soils better and are often faster
Why is compost well suited for pesticide biodegradation? More bioavailable to bacteria in the soil, and high temperatures aid in degradation.
Three compost designs Pile, vessel, and windrow
Another name for hydraulic excavator Track hoe
What are some basic components of a landfill? Clay liner, synthetic liner, clay cap, protective cap
Why would you monitor groundwater around a landfill. To ensure no leachate is leaking through the liners and into the environment
You find some water contaminated with organic contaminants. What could you do? Chemical oxidation, activated charcoal, pump and treat
You find some water contaminated with salts, what could you do? Reverse osmosis
When could phytoremediation be a viable option? When removing salts or metals from soil
Created by: swilson67