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unit 2: basic mol

BIOL 288

QuestionAnswer
what are two descriptions of cells highly orchestrated (things happen in order) and dynamically changing (everything is moving)
what are the types of bonds covalent, polar covalent, ionic and hydrogen
what are the interactions van der Waals, hydrophobic
what are the 4 types of biological molecules lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids and proteins
what are the "bricks" of cells water, lipids, carbs, nucleotides, amino acids, and other (vit, signaling moles. metals, toxins, ion)
what are the most common elements in cells CHNOPS
what are abundant elements in cells K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Na
what are the trace elements in cells Cu, Mn, Co, Zn, Al, Mo
what makes up most of cell weight water
what are macromolecules large polymer, similar subunits held by covalent bonds
what is special about ionic bonds meant to be weak so that rxns occur
what is forming bonds about filling the outer electron shell to achieve the most stable state
what are nonpolar covalent bonds equal sharing of electrons, fill outer shell, eg C-C bonds
what is valency of an atom # of electrons needed to fill outer shell. # of covalent bonds it can form
what are the 4 properties fo carbon 1. can make 4 covalent bonds. 2. can bond with a variety of other atoms including those that are part of important functional groups. 3. forms stable molecules due to covalent bonding. 4. C-C bonds are strong, which facilitates long chains, ring, branches
what does carbon form stable, sturdy backbones of many biological molecules
what are ionic bonds noncovalent bonds between charged atoms (ions). loss and gain of e- between atoms. atoms become charged and are attracted,
what are ionic bonds key in protein structure, chromosome structure and muscle contraction
what are polar covalent bonds intermediate between ionic and covalent. covalent bond with bias in e-sharing. higher electronegative atom gets more of the share. creates partial charges
what are the types of Van der Waals forces 1. dipole-dipole (H bonds) 2. dipole-induced dipole 3. induced dipole-induced dipole( london dispersion)
what is a dipole separation of opposite charges, polar molecules
1. what ar dipole-dipole molecules with partial charges generate weak forces, the H bond of water
2. what are dipole-induced dipole makes a nonpolar molecule a dipole one (induced) via pushing its charges(repelling)
3. what is induced dipole-induced dipole fluctuations in electron clouds cause brief, transient dipoles.
what percent of cells are water 70%
what is water the principal force behind what? cell forms, dynamics and function
what is the critical attribute of water its polarity
what is polarity of water responsible for cohesiveness, temp stabilizing capacity, solvent properties, hydrophobic effects, acid (H+ exchange)
what is water cohesiveness H-bonds (up to 4) make 3D arrangement that involves the breaking and reforming bonds
what is the H bonds in liquid water average bonding with 3.5 other water molecules
what is H bonds in ice average bond with 4 molecules, bond length increases, dec density-floats
what things does H bonds in water account for high surface tension, high boiling pt, high specific heat, high heat of vapourization
what is high tension of water water droplets rounded shape (interaction of hydrophilic and phobic), capillary action of plants, insects walk
what is high boiling pt of water more heat energy input needed to break H bonds and change state
what is high specific heat of water energy to increase temp of 1 g by 1 degree C
what is high heat of vapourization of water energy to convert 1 g liq to vapour
what is the temperature stabilizing capacity? water takes a long time to heat (break H bonds) and long time to cool (reform H bonds). 5x that of sand
what gives water its temp stabilizing capacity heat of vaporization
why would we overheat without waters temp stabilizing metabolic processes generate so much energy, we wouldnt be able to release
what cooling properties does high heat of vap give evaporative cooling, draws heat from organisms, thaw meat in cool water
what are the solvent properties of water from its polarity and tendency to form hydration spheres around molecules
what can water dissolve polar org (sugar, nucleic acids, some AA), ions, biological compounds(carboxyl groups, phosphate, amino)
what are the hydrophobic effects of water water fearing(lipids and proteins within cell membrane). key to ensure cell membrane stability
what are the 4 main types of biological molecules lipids, carbs, nucleic acids, proteins
Created by: abc273