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# Science 9

### semester 1

TermDefinition
Invention process within an overall engineering and product development process. It may be an improvement upon a machine or product or a new process for creating an object or a result.
Prototype a first, typical or preliminary model of something, especially a machine
Discovery the act or process of discovering
Innovations the introduction of something new; a new idea, method, or device
Patents protected by a trademark or a brand name so as to establish proprietary rights
Engineering the application of science and mathematics by which the properties of matter and the sources of energy in nature are made useful to people
STEM S: Science T: Technology E: Engineering M: Math
Scientific Method pattern of investigation procedures that can includes stating a problem, forming a hypothesis, researching and gathering information, testing a hypothesis, analyzing data, and drawing conclusions.
Hypothesis possible explanation for a problem using what is know and what is observed.
Experiment organized procedure for testing a hypothesis; tests the effect of one thing on another under controlled conditions.
Dependent Variable factor that changes as a result of changes in the other variables
Independent Variable factor that as it changes, affects the measure of another variable
Constant in an experiment, a variable that does not change.
Control standard used for comparison of test results in an experiment
Bias occurs when a scientist's expectations change how the results of an experiment are viewed
Model can be used to represent and idea, object, of event that is too big, too small, too complex or too dangerous to observe or test directly.
SI Internal System of Units; the improved, universally accepted version of the metric system; includes meter, liter and kilogram.
Volume the amount of space occupied by an object
Mass the amount of matter in an object
Density mass per unit volume of a material
Displacement distance and direction of an object's change in a position from that starting point
Speed Distance an object travels per unit of time.
Velocity the speed and direction of a moving object
Momentum property of a moving object that equals its mass times its velocity
Acceleration rate of change of velocity; it can be calculated by dividing the change in the velocity bu the time it takes the change to occur
Centripetal Acceleration acceleration of an object toward the center of a curved or circular path
Force a push or pull exerted on an object
Friction force that opposes the sliding motion between two touching surfaces
Gravity attractive force between two objects that depends on the masses of the objects and the distance between them.
Weight gravitational force exerted on an object
Net Force sum of all of the forces that are acting on an object
Inertia tendency of an object to resist any change in its motion
Newton's 1st Law an object moving at a constant velocity keeps moving at that velocity unless an unbalanced force acts on it.
Newton's 2nd Law the acceleration of an object is in the same direction as the net force on the object, and the acceleration equals the net force exerted on it divided by its mass.
Newton's 3rd Law when on object experts a force on a second object, the second object experts a force on the first object that is equal in strength and in the opposite direction
Air Resistance force that opposes the motion of objects that move though the air
Terminal Velocity the maximum speed an object will reach when falling through a substance, such as air
Free Fall the fall of an object on which only the force of gravity is acting
Centripetal Force a force that is directed toward that center of a curved or circular path
Law of Conservation of momentum if no external forces act on a group of objects, their total momentum does not change
Work transfer of energy when a force is applied over a distance; measured in joules
Machine device that makes doing work easier by increasing the force applied to an object, changing the direction of an applied force, or increasing the distance over which a force can be applied.
Simple Machine machine that does work with only one movement. Examples are lever, pulley, wheel and axle, inclined plane, screw and wedge
Compound Machine machine that is a combination of two more more simple machines
Efficiency ratio of the output work done bu the machine to the input work don on the machine, expressed as a percentage
Mechanical Advantage ratio of the output force exerted bu a machine to the input force applied to the machine
Energy the ability to to cause change, measured in joules
Kinetic Energy energy a moving object has because of its motion; determined bu the mes and speed of the object.
Potential Energy energy that is stored due to the interactions between objects
Elastic Potential Energy energy that is stored by compressing or stretching an object
Chemical Potential Energy energy that is due to chemical bonds
Gravitational Potential Energy energy that is due to the gravitational force between objects
Law of Conservation of Energy energy cannot be created or destroyed
Mechanical Energy sum of the potential energy and kinetic energy of the object in a system
Power the rate at which energy in converted; measured in watts (W)
Temperature measure of the average kinetic energy of all the particles that make up an object
Thermal Energy sum of the kinetic and potential energy of the particles that make up an object
Heat energy that is transferred between objects due to a temperature difference between those objects.
Specific Heat Amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of a material 1 degree C.
Conduction transfer of thermal energy by collisions between the particles that make up matter
Convection transfer of thermal energy in a fluid by the movement of warmer and cooler fluid from one place to another
Radiation transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves
Thermal Insulator a material through which thermal energy moves slowly
Thermodynamics study of the relationship between thermal energy, heat and work
First Law of Thermodynamics states that if mechanical energy of a system is constant, the increase in the thermal energy of the system equals the sum of the thermal energy transferred into the system and the work done on the system.
Second Law of Thermodynamics states that energy spontaneously spreads from regions of higher concentration to regions of lower concentration.
Internal Combustion Engine heat engine that burns fuel inside teh engine in chambers or cylinders
Fossil Fuels oil, natural gas and coal
Petroleum liquid fossil fuel formed from decayed remains of ancient organisms; used to make fuels and plastics
Non-Renewable Resources natural resources, such as fossil fuels that cannot be replaced
Fusion reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei form a nucleus with a larger mass, releasing large amounts of energy.
Fission process of splitting an atomic nucleus into two or more nuclei with smaller masses, releasing larger amounts of energy.
Nuclear Reactor an apparatus in which controlled nuclear chain reactions generate electricity
Nuclear Waste radioactive by-product that that results when radioactive materials are used.
Renewable Resources energy source that is replaced by natural processes faster than it is used
Photovoltaic Cells device that converts solar energy into electricity
Hydroelectricity electricity produced from the energy of moving water
Geothermal Energy thermal energy contained in and around magma; can be converted by a power plant into electrical energy
Biomass Renewable organic matter from plants and animals, such as wood and animal manure, that can be burned to provide thermal energy
Population the total number of individual of on species in an area
Carrying Capacity maximum number of individuals of a given species that the environment can support
Pollutants any substance that contaminates the environment.
Hazardous Wastes wastes that are poisonous, cause cancer, or can catch fire
Photo-chemical Smog the ozone containing pollution that results from the reaction between sunlight and vehicular or industrial exhaust.
Acid Precipitation water with a pH below 5.6 that falls to Earth as rain or snow and can harm plants and animals and corrode buildings.
Created by: nufinals