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Holes A&P Ch 1 Terms

Bold print terms & definitions from Hole's A&P Ch 1

anatomy (ah-nat′o-me) is the branch of science that deals with the structure (morphology) of body parts— their forms and how they are organized.
physiology (fiz′′e-ol′o-je) on the other hand, concerns the functions of body parts—what they do and how they do it.
atoms (at′omz) Smallest particles of an element that have the properties of that element.
molecule (mol′e ̆-ku ̄l) A particle composed of two or more joined atoms.
macromolecules (mak-ro ̄ mol′e ̆-ku ̄lz) Large molecules, such as proteins or nucleic acids.
cell (sel) The structural and functional unit of life.
organelle (or′′gah-nel′) A structure in a cell that has a specialized function.
tissues (tish′uz) Groups of similar cells that perform a specialized function.
organ (or′gan) A structure consisting of a group of tissues with a specialized function
organ system (or′gan sis′tem) A group of organs coordinated to carry on a specialized function.
organism (or′gah-nizm) An individual living thing.
metabolism (me ̆-tab′o-lizm) All of the chemical reactions in cells that break down or build up substances.
water A requirement for organisms and is the most abundant chemical in the body.
foods A requirement for organisms and is the substances that provide the body with necessary chemicals (nutrients) in addition to water.
oxygen A requirement for organisms and is a gas that is used to release energy from food substances.
heat A requirement for organisms and is a form of energy.
pressure A requirement for organisms and is the application of force to something. In humans atmospheric pressure in important in breathing.
internal environment (in-ter′ne ̆ l en-vi- ruhment) The fluid surrounding body cells.
homeostasis (ho′′me-o-sta′sis) A state of balance in which the body’s internal environment remains in the normal range.
Homeostatic mechanisms self-regulating control systems the body uses to maintain stability.
receptors (re-sep′torz) Specialized cells that provide information about the environment. Also, cell surface structures that bind particular molecules, called ligands, thereby transmitting a signal to inside the cell.
set point A component of a homeostatic mechanism that establishes the range that is optimal for a particular measurement.
effectors (e-fek′torz) Muscles or glands that effect changes in the body.
negative feedback (neg′ah-tiv fe ̄d′bak) A mechanism activated by an imbalance that corrects the imbalance.
positive feedback system (poz′ ̆ı-tiv fe ̄d′bak sis′tem) Process by which changes cause additional similar changes, producing unstable conditions.
axial (ak′se-al) Pertaining to the head, neck, and trunk.
appendicular (ap′′en-dik′u-lar) Pertaining to upper or lower limbs.
cranial cavity (ˈkrānēəl kav′ ̆ı-te) refers to the gap or space formed inside the skull.
Vertebral canal (vur-tuh-bruh-l kəˈnal) a column of space within the vertebra through which the spinal cord passes. Also known as the spinal cavity.
thoracic cavity (tho-ras′ik kav′ ̆ı-te) The space above the diaphragm in the chest.
abdominopelvic cavity (ab-dom′′ ̆ı-no- pel′vik kav′ ̆ı-te) The space between the diaphragm and the lower portion of the trunk of the body.
viscera (vis′er-ah) Organs in body cavities, especially in the abdomen.
diaphragm (di′ah-fram) A sheetlike structure largely composed of skeletal muscle and connective tissue that separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities.
mediastinum (me′′de-as-ti′num) Tissues and organs of the thoracic cavity that form a septum between the lungs.
abdominal cavity (ab-dom′ ̆ı-nal kav′ ̆ı-te) The space between the diaphragm and the pelvis.
pelvic cavity (pel′vik kav′ ̆ı-te) The space between the hipbones that encloses the terminal portion of the large intestine, the urinary bladder, and the internal reproductive organs.
oral cavity (ôrəl kav′ ̆ı-te) The cavity of the mouth
nasal cavity (na′zal kav′ ̆ı-te) Space in the nose.
orbital cavity (ôrbədl kav′ ̆ı-te) The space containing the eyes and associated skeletal muscles and nerves.
Middle ear cavity An air-filled, membrane-lined space located between the ear canal and the Eustachian tube, cochlea, and auditory nerve. The eardrum separates this space from the ear canal.
pericardial (per′′ ̆ı-kar′de-al) membrane A membrane that surrounds the heart.
parietal (pah-ri′e ̆-tal) Pertaining to the wall of a cavity.
pleural membranes (ploo′ral mem′bra ̄nz) Serous membranes that enclose the lungs and line the chest wall.
integumentary (in-teg-u-men′tar-e) system The skin and its accessory structures.
skeletal (skel′e ̆-tal) system System that consists of bones, as well as ligaments and cartilages that bind bones together.
muscular (mus′ku- lar) system An organ system consisting of skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscles.
nervous (ner′vus) system (see chapter 9) System that consists of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sense organs.
endocrine (en′do-krin) system System that includes all the glands that secrete chemical messengers called hormones.
cardiovascular (kahr′′de-o- vas′ku-lur) system System that includes the heart, arteries, veins, capillaries, and blood.
lymphatic (lim-fat′ik) system System composed of the lymphatic vessels, lymph fluid, lymph nodes, thymus, and spleen.
digestive (di-jest′iv) system System that receive foods from the outside. Then they break down food molecules into simpler forms that can pass through cell membranes and be absorbed.
respiratory (re-spi′rah-to′′re) system System that moves air in and out and exchange gases between the blood and the air. The nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bron- chi, and lungs are parts of this system.
urinary (u′r ̆ı-ner′′e) system System that consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra.
reproductive (re′′pro- duk′tiv) system A system of an organism that produces whole new organisms like itself.
anatomical position When the body is standing erect, face forward, with the upper limbs at the sides and the palms forward.
superior (soo-pe′re-or) Structure Above another structure.
inferior (in-fer′e-or) Below something else; pertaining to the lower surface of a part.
anterior (an-te′re-or) Pertaining to the front.
posterior (pos-te ̄r′e-or) Toward the back; the opposite of anterior.
medial (me′de-al) Toward or near the midline.
lateral (lat′er-al) Pertaining to the side.
bilateral Refers to paired structures, one of which is on each side.
ipsilateral Refers to structures on the same side.
contralateral Refers to structures on the opposite side.
superficial Means situated near the surface.
deep Describes parts that are more internal than superficial parts.
proximal (prok′s ̆ı-mal) Closer to the point of attachment; opposite of distal.
distal (dis′tal) Further from a point of attachment; opposite of proximal.
sagittal (saj′ ̆ı-tal) A plane or section that divides a structure into right and left portions.
transverse (tranz-vers′) A plane that divides a structure into superior and inferior portions.
coronal (kor′o-nul) A plane that divides a structure into anterior and posterior portions.
epigastric region (ep′′ ̆ı-gas′trik re′jun) The upper middle portion of abdomen.
Left and right hypochondriac regions Lie on each side of the epigastric region.
Left and right lumbar regions Lie on each side of the umbilical region.
umbilical region (um-bil′ ̆ı-kal re′jun) The central portion of the abdomen.
hypogastric region (hi′′po-gas′trik re′jun) The lower middle portion of the abdomen.
iliac region (il′e-ak re′jun) Part of the abdomen on either side of the lower middle or hypogastric region.
abdominal (ab-dom′ ̆ı-nal) The region between the thorax and pelvis.
acromial (ah-kro′me-al) The point of the shoulder.
antebrachial (an′′te-bra′ke-al) The forearm.
antecubital (an′′te-ku′b ̆ı-tal) The space in front of the elbow.
axillary (ak′s ̆ı-ler′′e) The armpit.
brachial (bra′ke-al) The arm.
buccal (buk′al) The cheek.
carpal (kar′pal) The wrist.
celiac (se′le-ak) The abdomen.
cephalic (se ̆-fal′ik) The head.
cervical (ser′v ̆ı-kal) The neck.
costal (kos′tal) The ribs.
coxal (kok′sal) The hip.
crural (kroor′al) The leg.
cubital (ku′b ̆ı-tal) The elbow.
digital (dij′ ̆ı-tal) The finger or toe.
dorsal (dor′sal) The back.
femoral (fem′or-al) The thigh.
frontal (frun′tal) The forehead.
genital (jen′ ̆ı-tal) The reproductive organs.
gluteal (gloo′te-al) The buttocks.
inguinal (ing′gw ̆ı-nal) The groin—the depressed area of the abdominal wall near the thigh.
lumbar (lum′bar) The loin—the region of the lower back between the ribs and the pelvis.
mammary (mam′er-e) The breast.
mental (men′tal) The chin.
nasal (na′zal) The nose.
occipital (ok-sip′ ̆ı-tal) The lower posterior region of the head.
oral (o′ral) The mouth.
orbital (or′bi-tal) The eye cavity.
otic (o′tik) The ear.
palmar (pahl′mar) The palm of the hand.
patellar (pah-tel′ar) The front of the knee.
pectoral (pek′tor-al) The chest.
pedal (ped′al) The foot.
pelvic (pel′vik) The pelvis.
perineal (per′′ ̆ı-ne′al) The perineum—the region between the anus and the external reproductive organs.
plantar (plan′tar) The sole of the foot.
popliteal (pop′′l ̆ı-te′al) The area behind the knee.
sacral (sa′kral) The posterior region between the hipbones.
sternal (ster′nal) The middle of the thorax, anteriorly.
sural (su′ral) The calf of the leg.
tarsal (tahr′sal) The instep of the foot.
umbilical (um-bil′ ̆ı-kal) The navel.
vertebral (ver′te-bral) The spinal column.
cardiology (kar′′de-ol′o-je) Branch of medical science dealing with the heart and heart diseases.
cytology (si-tol′o-je) Study of the structure, function, and abnormalities of cells. Cytology and histology are subdivisions of microscopic anatomy.
dermatology (der′′mah-tol′o-je) Study of the skin and its diseases.
endocrinology (en′′do-kr ̆ı-nol′o-je) Study of hormones, hormone-secreting glands, and their diseases.
epidemiology (ep′′ ̆ı-de′′me-ol′o-je) Study of the factors determining the distribution and frequency of health-related conditions in a defined human population.
gastroenterology (gas′′tro-en′′ter-ol′o-je) Study of the stomach and intestines and their diseases.
geriatrics (jer′′e-at′riks) Branch of medicine dealing with older individuals and their medical problems.
gerontology (jer′′on-tol′o-je) Study of the aging process.
gynecology (gi′′ne ̆-kol′o-je) Study of the female reproductive system and its diseases.
hematology (he ̄m′′ah-tol′o-je) Study of the blood and blood diseases.
histology (his-tol′o-je) Study of the structure and function of tissues. Histology and cytology are subdivisions of microscopic anatomy.
immunology (im′′u-nol′o-je) Study of the body’s resistance to infectious disease.
neonatology (ne′′o-na-tol′o-je) Study of newborns and the treatment of their disorders.
nephrology (ne ̆-frol′o-je) Study of the structure, function, and diseases of the kidneys.
neurology (nu-rol′o-je) Study of the nervous system and its disorders.
obstetrics (ob-stet′riks) Branch of medicine dealing with pregnancy and childbirth.
oncology (ong-kol′o-je) Study of cancers.
ophthalmology (of′′thal-mol′o-je) Study of the eye and eye diseases.
orthopedics (or′′tho-pe′diks) Branch of medicine dealing with the muscular and skeletal systems and their problems.
Created by: jodyclaborn



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