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Hydrogeology

Hydrogeology until midterm

QuestionAnswer
Name different kinds of runoff. Stream flow, overland flow, interflow, and channel flow.
What is interflow? Water enters the soil but is discharged somewhere else on the surface, not into ground water.
What is percolation? Water in the soil sinks into the groundwater system.
What is advection? The movement of clouds
What is hydrogeology? The study of how water and geological matter interact.
Define interception. Precipitation which is caught and held by vegetation and lost to evaporation.
What are ways which runoff can be classified? According to speed and source.
Define interflow. Watre moves laterally through the soil and then enters a stream channel.
Another term for interflow. subsurface storm flow
Differentiate between groundwater recharge and discharge? Recharge occurs when water enters the saturated zone and inflows into the resevoir. Discharge occurs when water is removed from the saturated zone by flowing across the water table.
How much of the world's fresh water does Canada have? 20 percent.
How much of the world's water is fresh? 4%
How much of the world's water is in ice? 2.97%
How much of the world's water is in the ground? 1.05%
What are three types of precipitation formation? Convectional, cyclonic, and orographic
What is convectional rainfall? Hot moist air rises, cools, condenses, and precipitates.
What is cyclonic rainfall? Two different temperature fronts meet, and the warm front is pushed upwards where it quickly condenses and precipitates.
How does orographic rainfall work? moist air reaches a boundary, where it then rains on the windward side, but is dry on the leeward side.
differentiate between freezing rain and sleet. Freezing rain freezes on contact.Sleet freezes just before.
What is graupel? Snow pellets between 2 and 5 mm
How are temperature and snow crystals related? The temperature affects the shape. Warmer is more needle like
Two types of rain gauges Tipping bucket and standard gauge
Explain how a tipping bucket measures rainfall. Each bucket is a set amount (0.25mm) and tips into a larger bucket. The number of times the bucket tips is recorded. Multiply amount by number tips.
Explain how a standard rain gauge works. The actual rain amount is 1/10 of the amount in the measuring tube.
Three ways of measuring rainfall distribution. Arithmetic average Isohyetal Thiessen polygon
With what type of topography can you accurately use the arithmetic average? flat
Explain the isohyetal method. Interpolation between gauges set at specific increments, with isohyets representing equal rain depths.
Explain the thiessen polygon method. Similar to isohyetal, but polygons are formed from the middle points between gauges.
What are the three acceptable purging strategies? 1. The pump til you're dry and let it refill 2. Purge 3x well volume 3. Parameter stabilization
Why do you purge a well? To get a more representative sample
Problems associated with monitoring Contaminated samples Well material causing chemistry changes Sample deterioration Sucky lab practices
Types of well casings Stick up and flush mounted
How does a water level meter work? Senses the pressure difference between air and water
When would you use an oil/water interface meter? When there is a floating NAPL layer that you need to know the thickness of
What is a NAPL non aqueous phase liquid
Name 3 purging/sampling devices. Bailer Syringe Peristaltic pump Bladder pump Inertia lift pump Gas driven pump Electric submersible pump Discrete interval pump Drive point profiler
What purge/sample devices can you use with VoCs Syringe, inertia lift pump
How do you use a discrete interval sampler 1. pressurize 2. lower 3. release pressure to collect 4. repressurize
Define an aquifer Rock layer that goes with the flow
Define an aquitard Allows for flow but is unattainable
Define an aquiclude Saturated but doesn't transmit so acts like a barrier
Define an aquifuge Just a good for nothing water blocking rock
Another word for unconfined aquifer Phreatic
Another word for confined aquifer Artesian
What is a darcy? 1. A terrible name 2. The equivalent of one cubic centimeter/second at viscosity, pressure, and area of one.
Define an artesian well Flows up without a pump (because artists are really pressured)
What is the potentiometric surface? The level to which the water rises in an artesian well (equivalent to how much money and fame an artist would receive if discovered)
Define perched aquifer A small unconfined aquifer just above the main water table
Why is porosity not a good indicator of flow? Because the water movement is related to pore size, not the number of pores
Define specific yield The proportion of water which readily drains or the water volume drained/rock volume
Define specific retention The exact opposite of specific yield (water retained/rock volume)
The sum of specific yield and retention. porosity
Summarize Darcy's law. The amount of flow is proportional to the area, hydraulic head, and material nature
Q means flow. What does q mean flux (as in: for flux sake, can they use more letters of the alphabet)
A negative k value indicated what type of water movement? high to low
How could you apply Darcy's law? Predict groundwater flow and/or contaminant flow
T= K*b What is T and what is b T is transmissivity b is aquifer thickness
Differentiate between rock and mineral Rock is many minerals, also a music genre Mineral has definite chemical composition
Differentiate mafic vs felsic mafic has lots of magnesium and iron- darker alkaline soil felsic has feldspar and silica- light sandy acidic soil
Two types of igneous rock Volcanic and plutonic
pumice is porous and granite is not, but both are igneous. How is this possible? Pumice is formed extrusively, and the lava cooling can trap lots of gas bubbles
The heck is diagenesis Diagenesis is the formation of sedimentary rocks through layering, compaction, and time.
Cementing materials in sedimentary rocks Calcite, dolomite and silica
How might you differentiate conglomerate from breccia? Conglomerate is a rounded clastic rock. Breccia is an angular clastic rock. Not to be mistaken with classic rock, which has nothing to do with geology.
Two types of porosity Primary, or between grains Secondary, or from fractured
Quaternary rocks are from 10 000 ya to now. What is the significance of the 10 000 ya? Glaciation
What is a chemical sedimentary rock? Sediments crystalize from dissolved compounds
Bedrock is typically from which geologic time? Cretaceous
Three aspects of groundwater affected by bedrock geology. Ions, quality, flow
What is the Edmonton group? The horsehoe canyon, whitemud, battle, and scollard formations. Filled with bentonitic sandstone, siltstones, and silty claystones. Coal seams
What formation underlies the Edmonton group? The bearpaw formation; marine shales, glauconitic sandstone, ironstone, and bentonite.
What does glauconitic refer to? Iron potassium silicate
What other formations exist around Edmonton/AB? Belly river, wapiti, and paskapoo.
What formation is found over most of AB? Wapiti
T or F Edmonton aquifers are a common source of groundwater. T
What is Bowen's reaction series? The order in which minerals crystallize.
Why is pH a master variable? pH controls the distribution of ionic species like carbonates and bicarbonates.
Created by: swilson67