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Air Quality Sem 2

First Quiz

QuestionAnswer
What are issues surrounding ozone? Tropospheric ozone is being generated while stratospheric ozone is being depleted.
What are the three major reactions in the ozone cycle? NO+ O3= NO2 +O2 NO2= NO + O O + O2= O3
What is the concentration of ozone at a steady state? 40 micrograms per metre cubed
What species must be present for secondary ozone to form? HO radical heat over 18c stagnant air NOx NMHC/sinks of
Describe ozone sinks. During the day, ozone builds up. At night, ozone is used to make nitric acid.
Describe the varying levels of chemicals on a smoggy day. Morning- NOx and NMHC low Rush- Sharp NO and NMHC rise Mid Morn- NO drops, NO2/O3/aldehydes rise Noon- NO2 drops, O3/aldehydes/PAN peak Afternoon- everything drops
What happens in a smog chamber? UV is used to irradiate NMHC and NO/NO2 to generate ozone
What are the two phases of ozone accumulation? 1. NO2 and O2 react with the sun to form ozone 2. HC generates aldehydes which produce radicals. Radicals react with NO2, meaning ozone accumulates
What two effects were found as a result of ozone exposure in animal studies? The ciliated cells in the mucociliary escalator are injured, and pulmonary odema develops.
In human studies, which five things happen as a direct result of increased ozone levels? 1. Decreased pulmonary function 2. Aggravated respiratory disease 3. Hospital admissions 4. Premature death 5. Asthma
What are the two non-attainment zones in Canada? Lower Fraser Valley and the Windsor-Quebec Corridor
What is the current 1-hr objective for ozone in AB? 160 micrograms/m3
What are the four levels of action 1. Baseline monitoring 2. Surveillance 3. Management Plan 4. Mandatory Plan
Which four AB cities require management plans? Edmonton, Red Deer, and Calgary
What effects does ozone have on vegetation? Flecking, and needle death.
Define a particle. Any atmospheric material other than pure water.
What are two types of particles? Particulate and aerosols
What are the sources of particles? Natural/anthropogenic, primary/secondary
What are some characteristics of particles? They have a wide range of diameters, shapes, densities, and compositions.
Why is particle size important? It impacts particle growth, accumulation on its surface, and the half life.
What can particle size impact? Visibility and human health.
What are the two major fractions of particles? Coarse (larger than PM2.5) and fine
What does AED stand for? Aerodynamic Equivalent Diameter
Why is AED needed? Because there are many shapes of particles, this normalized the diameter to a spherical density of 1 gram per centimeter cubed.
What are the three types of fine particle? ultra fine aitken nuclei accumulation
What are three notes about ultra fine particles? They are generated by nucleation. They have almost no mass. They can get in the alveoli.
What are notes about aitken nuclei? Formed by combustion, and a very short half life due to coagulative tendencies.
How might coarse particles form? By mechanical processes such as solid fragmentation and liquid vaporization
Differentiate between PM 10 and PM 2.5 PM 10 is larger and can get into the naso-pharyngeal and tracheo-bronchial areas. PM 2.5 is fine and can get into the alveoli
How are particle shape and composition related? shape is dependent upon the composition and formation process
Differentiate between composition of fine and coarse particulate. Fine is usually secondary pollutants like sulfates and nitrates. Coarse is usually primary pollutants and crustal elements.
What is the difference in PM 2.5 in the East vs West? In the East, most of it is sulfate. In the west, most of it is nitrate
Which fine particle is likely to affect visibility and why? Accumulation. This is because the visible spectrum is between 0.4 and 0.7 micrometers, and accumulation particles can be in this range.
What are the different types of light scattering? Reflection, diffraction, and refraction.
Differentiate between diffraction and refraction. Both are forward scattering, but diffraction goes around the particle, and refraction goes through the particle.
What factors of meteorology affect visibility? Sun, wind, stagnation, and humidity.
Four stages in a management plan. 1. Baseline monitoring 2. Surveillance action 3. Management plan 4. Mandatory plan
Is carbon monoxide mostly natural or anthropogenic? Natural
As a natural pollutant, is carbon monoxide primary or secondary? Secondary
As an anthropogenic pollutant, is carbon monoxide primary or secondary? 50/50
What are two ways that methane can be formed from combustion? Incomplete hydrocarbon combustion or high temperature carbon dioxide dissociation.
What are sinks of carbon monoxide? Oxidation to carbon dioxide or soil sequestration.
How does carbon monoxide impact human health? It is a competitive inhibitor for hemoglobin
What is the normal background concentration of hemoglobin in the blood? 1 percent.
T or F Studies show that exposure to highly soluble ozone can lead to damaged mucus secreting cells. False. It is not a polar molecule and damages the ciliated cells
Why does incomplete combustion form more carbon monoxide? Carbon monoxide is formed from carbon a lot fasted than carbon monoxide goes to carbon dioxide.
Created by: swilson67