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Chpt 6 Terminology

Document Layout and Design

QuestionAnswer
A group of panels (pages) that are printed on one side of a sheet of paper for a document. Signature
Holding the paper in portrait orientation, fold it horizontally in half, then fold it vertically in half to create eight pages also called a French fold and often used for formal invitations. Eight-panel fold
A potential folding problem that occurs when printed matter is trimmed off on the inside panels of a signature; also called creep. Washout (creep)
The design principle that ensures visual units on the page are horizontally and vertically connected. Alignment
Initial rough sketches on paper (brainstorming) to help establish basic ideas for the layout and design of a document. Thumbnails
The space between two sides of adjacent pages in a bound document; includes left-bound and top-bound. Gutter
The design principle that groups related information together through the logical connection of the information (visual units), what information should be emphasized, and effective use of white space. Proximity
Spacing that adjusts the number of words on a line by squeezing or expanding text and adding or removing space from character combinations on a line. Track spacing
Holding the paper in landscape orientation and folding it in thirds to create six pages. Six-panel fold
The portion of a lowercase letter that is above the main body of a letter; in the English alphabet there are eight of these. Ascender
Folding a piece of paper in half so the vertical fold is either a landscape orientation (holding the paper so it is wider than it is tall) or a portrait orientation (holding the paper so it is taller than it is wide). Four-panel fold
Using a dithering process where dots are either on or off to reproduce on paper a continuous-tone image (i.e., a photograph that has been converted into a black-and-white image). Halftone
Typesetting method that minimizes the gap of unlinked paper between adjacent colors by expanding the ink so small amounts of color overlap and print on top of each other. Trapping
Sketches that provide colors to be used, number of pages and/or folds, trim size of the final document, image placement, number of columns, and type specifications; a refinement of hard-copy thumbnails. Comprehensive sketches (comps)
A small amount of text that is enlarged within an article to catch the reader’s attention. Pull quote
The design principle that occurs when two elements are noticeably different: bold, italics, a thin line with a thick line; a warm color with a cool color, a small graphic with a large graphic, or a horizontal element with a vertical element. Contrast
Overall arrangement and appearance of printed matter on a page that establishes a visual hierarchy by providing text and graphic accents that assist the reader in understanding the message and relationships between headings and subordinate blocks of text. Typography
Trimming the unwanted edges of an image. Cropping
The design principle that repeats some aspect of the design throughout one-page and multiple-page documents for consistency and tying the visual units together. Repetition
A collection of sample documents in a folder as a helpful resource when brainstorming designs for future projects (flyer, brochure, post card, multi-page document, or other types of business documents). Idea folder
An 8-bit mode with 254 different shades of gray producing what individuals call black-and-white images. Grayscale
Grouping like information together and separated from other units by white space. Visual unit
Pivoting an image around the image’s center point. Rotating
The portion of a lowercase letter that falls below the baseline of a letter; in the English alphabet there are five letters with descenders. Descender
The spacing of words and characters on a line by intentionally decreasing the default spacing to improve the appearance of letter combinations. Kerning
Stylistic device used to emphasize the beginning of a section by setting the first letter with a larger and sometimes stylized font. Dropper capital (drop cap)
A typeface where no decorative stroke is added to the end of a letter’s main stroke; often used for footnotes, endnotes, or headings. Sans serif
The vertical space between lines in the text; if two different leading values are specified in a line of print, the larger value applies to the entire line. Leading
Nonsense type showing appropriate type size, line spacing, and test placement but does not include the final test; often used when keying comprehensive sketch. Greeking
A typeface with a small decorative stroke (slab, wedge, or hair) added to the end of a letter’s main strokes. Serif
The number of finished pieces required when placing an order with a reproduction center or commercial print shop. Print run
Arranging the pages in the order required for printing. Printer spreads
The area on a page that is blank – no text or graphics; professional designers make effective use of this. White space
Created by: imaitrt