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UVA Module 7 Review

UVA Module 7 Vocabulary

TermDefinition
Carbon An element present in all living things, like plants and animals
Deposition The process by which sediments, soil, rocks, or other Earth debris are added to a landform
Half-life The time taken for the radioactive decay of an element to occur
Index Fossil Remains of organisms that existed only for a specific period of time and are used as guides for age analysis
Law of superposition Rocks are deposited in sequence with the oldest rock layers on the bottom and the youngest rock layers on the top
Asthenosphere A transition zone beneath the lithosphere that is semi-fluid, sometimes referred to as the plastic layer
Continental Crust All the parts of Earth's crust that are not beneath the ocean
Oceanic Crust The parts of Earth's crust located beneath the ocean that make up the seafloor
Convection Currents Movement of liquid or gaseous matter in a circular motion caused by a difference in temperature; warm rises and cool sinks, causing a circular current
Crust The hard, rigid outermost layer of Earth
Mantle The layer that is directly below Earth's crust and is divided into three parts: lithosphere, asthenosphere, and mesosphere
Outer Core The liquid layer located between the mantle and the inner core
Inner Core The inner most solid layer of Earth
Lithosphere The rigid, solid upper mantle connected to Earth's crust
Mesosphere The solid lower layer of the mantle
Pressure The amount of force on a substance
Seismograph Instrument used to measure earthquake waves
Tectonic plates  The layer of Earth that is split into large pieces; it floats on the asthenosphere and moves due to convection currents
Continental drift States that all of the continents were once joined together into a single, giant landmass named Pangea; now called the theory of plate tectonics
Convergent boundary Occurs when tectonic plates move towards each other and slowly collide
Divergent boundary:  Occurs when tectonic plates move apart from one another
Transform boundary Occurs when tectonic plates slide past each other
Fault A deep crack in the ground that extends deep in Earth's crust; found at areas where the tectonic plates meet
Pangea An ancient, single landmass composed of all the continents
Seafloor spreading Divergent boundaries in plates under the sea
Subduction zone The boundary where two tectonic plates collide; one plate moves beneath the other being pushed further into the mantle
Theory of plate tectonics States that all of the continents on Earth were once connected creating one big landmass named Pangea; was once called the continental drift theory
Volcano Formed when lava or ash builds up over time
Epicenter The location on Earth's surface directly above the focus where the seismic energy originates
Focus The location on the fault where the earthquake begins
Hotspot Where molten magma rises to just underneath the surface of Earth, creating a bulge or volcanic activity
Mid-ocean ridge  Magma seeps up through the divergent plate boundaries in the ocean, forming a mountain range
Ring of Fire An area in the Pacific Ocean where most of the earthquakes and volcanic eruptions take place
Trench Where convergent tectonic plates meet on the ocean floor
Tsunami A large, potentially destructive wave created by underwater earthquake activity
Types of seismic waves Love, primary, Rayleigh, secondary surface
Types of Mountain building Fault-block and Folded
Radioactive decay The process by which the nucleus of an unstable atom loses energy by emitting radiation in order to become stable
Created by: mpolitz