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FA rapid review 2017

Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly budd-chiari syndrome (post hepatic venous thrombosis)
abdominal pain, diarrhea, leukocytosis, recent antibiotic use clostridium difficile infection
achilles tendon xanthoma Familial hypercholesterolemia (low LDL receptor singling)
Adrenal haemorrhage, hypotension, DIC Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome (meningococcemia)
Anaphylaxis following blood transfusion IgA deficiency
Anterior "drawer sign" + anterior cruciate ligament injury
Arachnodactyly, lens dislocation (upward), aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints marfan syndrome (fibrilln defect)
Athlete with polycythemia 2nd to erythropoietin injection
back pain, fever, night sweats port's disease (vertebral TB)
bilateral acoustic schwannomas Neurofibromatosis type 2
bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis sarcoidosis (non caseating granulomas)
bilateral hilar adenopathy + increased ACH sarcoidosis
black eschar on face of pt with diabetic ketoacidos Mucor or Rhizopus fungal infection
blue sclera osteogenesis imperfecta (type 1)
bluish line on gingiva lead poisoning (lines called burton lines)
bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis pages disease of bone (increased osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity)
bounding pulses, wide pulse pressure, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing aortic regurgitation
butterly facial rash and raynaud phenomenon in a young female systemic lupus erythematosus
cafe au last spots, litchi nodules (iris hamartoma), cutaneous neurofibromas, pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas neurofibromatosis type 1
cafe au last spots (unilateral), polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty, multiple endocrine abnormalities McCune-Albright syndrome (mosaic G-protein singling mutation)
calf pseudohypertrophy muscular dystrophy (most common Duchenne, due to x-link recessive frameshift mutation of dystrophin gene
cervical lymphadenopathy, desquamating rash, coronary aneurysm, red conjuctivae and tongue, hand-foot changes kawasaki disease (treat with IVIG and aspirin)
cherry red spots on macula 1.tay sachs (ganglioside accumulation 2.niemann - pick (sphingomyelin accumulation) 3.central retinal artery occlusion
chest pain on exertion angina (stable: with moderate exertion; unstable with minimal exertion or at rest)
chest pain, pericardial effusion/friction rub, persistent fever following MI Dressler syndrome (autoimmune-mediated post MI fibrinous pericarditis, 2 weeks to several months after acute episode)
chest pain with ST depression on EKG 1.unstable angina (- troponin) 2.NSTEMI (+ troponin)
Child uses arms to stand up from squat Duchenne muscular dystrophy (Gower sign)
child with fever later develops red rash on face that spreads to body erythema infectiosum/fifth disease "slapped cheeks" appearance, caused by parvovirus B19
chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration hungtingon disease (AD, CAG repeat expansion)
Chorioretinitis , hydrocephalus, intracranial calcifications congenital toxoplasmosis
chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps, myoglobinuria mcardle disease (skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylase deficiency)
cold intolerance hypothyroidism
conjugate horizontal gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia internuclear ophthalmoplegia (damage to MLF, may be unilateral or bilateral)
continuous "machine like" heart murmur PDA (close with indomethacin; keep open with PGE analog)
cutaneous/dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition myxoedema (caused by hypothyroidism, graves disease (pretibial))
cutaneous flushing, diarrhea, bronchospasm carcinoid syndrome (right sided cardiac valvular lesions, increase in 5-HIAA) aka serotonin
Dark purple skin/mouth nodules in pt with AIDS Kaposi sarcoma, associated with HHV-8 . Classification: rhadinovirus. Group 1 (dsDNA). Family: Herpesviridae HHV-8 can cause kaposi sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and some forms of multi centric cattleman's disease
Deep, laboured breathing/hyperventilation Diabetic ketoacidosis (kussmaul respirations)
dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea Pellagra (niacin, vitamin B3 deficiency)
dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, alcoholism and malnutrition wet beriberi (thiamine aka vitamin B1 deficiency)
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection Pasterurella multocida (cellulitis at inoculation site)
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis Sjogren syndrome (autoimmune destruction of exocrine glands)
Dysphagia (oesophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anaemia plummer-vinson syndrome (can progress to oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma)
elastic skin, hypermotibility of joints, increased bleeding tendency ehlers-danlos syndrome (type 5 collagen defect, type 3 collagen defect seen in vascular subtype of ED)
enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node virchow node (abdominal metastasis)
Erythroderma lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells mycosis fungoides (cutaneous t-cell lymphoma) or sezary syndrome (mycosis fungicides + malignant T cell in blood)
episodic vertigo, tinnitus, hearing loss meniere disease
facial muscle spasm upon tapping chovostek sign (hypocalcemia)
fat, female, forty, and fertile cholelithiasis (gallstones)
fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphillis jarisch-herxheimer reaction (rapid lysis of spirochetes results in endotoxin release)
fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash measles
fever, night sweats, weight loss B symptoms (staging) of lymphoma
fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis with abnormal curvature peyronie disease (connective tissue disorder)
golden brown rings around peripheral cornea wilson disease (kayser-fleischer rings due to copper accumulation)
gout, intellectual disability, self-mutilating behaviour in a boy lesch-nyhan syndrome (HGPRT deficiency, X-linked recessive)
Hamartomatous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth/feet/ genitals Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (inherited, benign polyposis can cause bowel obstruction; increased cancer risk, mainly GI)
Hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, osteoporosis, aseptic necrosis of femoral head, bone crisis Gaucher disease ( glucocerebroside deficiency)
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts alport syndrome (mutation of collagen 4) can't pee, can't see and can't hear a bee)
hyperphagia, hyper sexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility Kluver-Bucy syndrome (bilateral amygdala lesion)
Hyperreflexia, hypertonia, babinski sign present UMN damage
hyporeflexia, hypotonia, atrophy, fasciculations LMN damage
hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia Chronic bronchitis (hyperplasia of mucous cells, "blue bloaters")
indurated, ulcerated genital lesions Non painful chancre ( primary syphilis, treponema pallidum) painful with exudate: chancroid (haemophilus ducreyi)
infant with cleft lip/ palate, microcephaly or holoprosencephaly, polydactyly, cutis aplasia Palau syndrome (trisomy 13)
infant with hypoglycaemia, hepatomegaly 1. Cori disease (debranching enzyme deficiency) 2. von Gierke disease (glucose 6 phosphatase deficiency, more severe)
infant with microcephaly, rocker bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect edwards syndrome (trisomy 18)
jaundice, palpable distended non tender gallbladder courvoisier sign (distal malignant obstruction of biliary tree)
large rash with bull's eye appearance erythema chronic migrans from Ixodes (X=hit the bull's eye)..lyme disease : borrelia
lucid interval after traumatic brain injury epidural hematoma (middle meningeal artery rupture)
male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells Bruton disease (x-linked agammaglobulinemia)
Mucosal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time Glanzmann thrombasthenia (defect in platelet aggregation due to lack of GpIIb/IIIa)
muffled heart sounds, distended neck veins, hypotension beck triad of cardiac tamponade
multiple colon polyps, osteoma/soft tissue tutors, impacted/supernumerary teeth gardner syndrome (subtype of FAB)
myopathy (infantile hypertrophic cardiomyopathy), exercise intolerance pope disease (lysosomal alpha 1,4-glucosidase deficiency )
neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth Erb-Duchenne palsy (superior trunk (C5-C6) brachial plexus injury "waiter's tip"
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance sheehan syndrome (pituitary infarction)
nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia Multiple Sclerosis
painful blue fingers/toes, haemolytic anaemia Cold agglutinin disease (autoimmunute haemolytic anaemia caused by mycoplasma pneumonia, infectious mononucleosis, CLL)
painful fingers/toes changing colour from blue to white to red with cold or stress raynaud phenomenon (vasospasm in extremities)
painful, raised red lesions on pads of fingers/ toes Osler nodes (infective endocarditis, immune complex deposition)
painless , erythematous lesions on palms and soles Janeway lesions (infective endocarditis, septic emboli/microabscesses)
painless jaundice cancer of the pancreatic head obstructing bile duct
palpable purpura on buttocks/legs, joint pain, abdominal pain (child), , hematuria henoch-schonlein purpura (IgA vasculitis affecting skin and kidneys)
pancreatic, pituitary and parathyroid tumors MEN 1 (AD)
periorbital and /or peripheral edema, proteinuria (>3.5/day), hyperalbuminemia, hypercholesterolemia nephrotic syndrome
pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation emphysema (pink puffer, centriacinar (smoking) or panacinar (alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency)
polyuria, renal tubular acids type 2, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances, hypophopatemic ricks falcon syndrome (multiple combined dysfunction of the proximal convoluted tubule)
pruritic, purple, polygonal planar papules and plaques (6 Ps) lichen planus
ptosis, mitosis, anhidrosis horner syndrome (sympathetic chain lesion)
pupil accommodates but does not react neurosyphilis (argyll Robertson pupil)
rapidly progressive limb weakness that ascends following GI/URI guillain-barre syndrome (acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculopathy subtype)
rash on palms and soles coxsackie A, second syphilis, rocky mt spotted fever
recurrent cold (noninflammed) abscesses, unusual eczema, high serum IgE hyper IgE syndrome (job syndrome): neutrophil chemotaxis abnormality
red currant jelly sputum in alcoholics or diabetic pts klebsiella pneumonia
red currant jelly stools acute mesenteric schema (adults), intussusception (children)
red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple / areola paget disease of the breast (sign of neoplasm)
red urine in morning, fragile RBC paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
renal cell carcinoma (bilateral ), hamangioblastoma, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma von hippel-lindau disease (chromosome 3, dominant tutor suppressor gene mutation)
resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability, shuffling gate Parkinson disease (low dopamine neutrons in substantial nigra pars compacta)
retinal haemorrhages with pale centers roth spots (bacterial endocarditis )
severe jaundice in neonate crippler-najjar syndrome (congenital unconjugaed hyperbilirubinemia)
severe RLQ pain with palpable LLQ Roving sign (Acute appendicitis)
severe RLQ pain with deep tenderness mcburney sign (acute appendicitis)
short stature, cafe au last spots, thumb/radial defects, increase incidence of tumors/ leukaemia, aplastic anaemia Fanconi anemia (genetic loss of DNA crosslink repair; often progresses to AML)
single palmar crease down syndrome
situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis, infertility kartagener syndrome (dyne arm defect affecting cilia)
skin hyper pigmentation, hypotension, fatigue primary adrenocortical insufficiency (ex: addison disease) causes increase in ACTH and increase in alpha MSH production (thus the hyper pigmentation)
slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys Becker muscular dystrophy (x-link missense mutation in dystrophin; less severe than Duchenne)
small, irregular red spots on buccal /lingual mucosa with blue-white centers kopek spots (measles (rebel) virus)
smooth, moist, painless, wart-like white lesions on genitalia condylomata lata (secondary siphilis)
splinter haemorrhages in fingernails bacterial endocarditis
strawberry tongue scarlett fever, kawasaki disease
steak oseraies, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney, cystic hygroma at birth, short stature, webbed neck, lymphedema turner syndrome (45, XO)
sudden swollen/painful bleeding, poor wound healing, petechiae scurvy (vitamin C deficiency; can't hydroxylate proline/lysine for collagen synthesis)
swollen, hard, painful finger joints osteoarthritis (osteophytes on PIP (bouchard nodes), DIP (heberden nodes) stiff in the afternoon
sudden swollen/painful big toe joint, tophi gout/podegra (hyperuricemia)
systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo) aortic stenosis
telangiectasis, recurrent epistaxis, skin discolouration, arteriovenous malformation, GI bleeding, hematuria osler-weber-rendu syndrome
thyroid & parathyroid tutors, pheochromocytoma (medullary thyroid cancer- calcitonin) MEN 2A (AD RET mutation)
thyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma, ganglioneuromatosis (mucosal) also marfan looking person MEN 2B (AD RET mutation)
p-glycoprotein also known as multi drug resistance protein 1 (MDR1), classically seen in adrenocortical carcinoma but also expressed by other cancer cells like colon and liver. pumps out toxins )chemotherapy drugs) so low response overtime->resistance overtime to chemo
PDGF (platelet derived growth factor) secreted by activated platelets and macrophages induces vascular remodelling and smooth muscle cell migration stimulates fibroblast growth for collagen synthesis
FGF (fibroblast growth factor) stimulates angiogenesis
EGF stimulates cell growth via tyrosine kinases (EGFR/ErbB1)
TGF-B Angiogenesis, fibrosis
Metalloproteinases Tissue remodelling (made by neutrophils)
VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) stimulates angiogenesis
toe extension/fanning upon plantar scrape UMN Lesion, babiski sign
unilateral facial drooping involving forehead LMN facial nerve (CN 7) palsy; UMN lesion spare with forehead
urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in males can't see, can't pee , can't climb a tree reactive arthritis associated with HLA-B27
vascular birthmark (port wine stain ) of the face nevus flames (benign, but associated with sturge-weber syndrome)
vomiting blood following gastroesophageal lacerations mallory-weiss syndrome (alcoholic and bulimic pts)
weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever and adenopathy whipple disease (tropheryma whipplei)
worst headache of my life subarachnoid haemorrhage
major basic protein the main protein in eosinophils
eosinophils fight anti-helminths or protozoa infections by ..? major basic protein
two commonly used immunosuppressants in transplant pts cyclosporine and tacrolimus ..inhibit calcineurin activation
transplant rejection by T cells. CD8. calcineurin-->NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) -->enter nucleus and bind to IL-2 promotor. IL2 stimulates growth and differentiation of T cells and its important in the immune response
BCL2 over expressed antiapoptotic-associated with follicular lymphoma t(14:18) translocation
E cadherin glycoprotein used for epithelial cell adhesion. if lost then cell cluster is disrupted. loss of e-cadherin is associated with metastasis and is a predictor of disease progression in some cancers
neurofibromin tumor supressor protein encoded by NF1 gene in chromosome 17. Can protect against cancers and is a key suppressor of RAS, which is one of the most powerful activators of cell growth and proliferation
stimulates alpha 1 receptors on surface of cardiac cells, activating k channels and increasing k conductance causing membrane potential to remain negative for a longer period of time, results in transient slowing of the sinus rate leading to AV delay adenosine
inhibits Na/k/ATPase pump in myocardial cells =>increase intracellular NA==>leading to rise in calcium concentration. no affect on k channels and little affect on K efflux digoxin
rapid acting, short duration beta blocker (class 2 anti arrhythmic) =>slows the rate of discharge of sinus or ectopic pacemakers and increase refractory period of AV node. No effect on K efflux Esmolol
type of non-hodkin lymphoma Diffuse large B cell lymphoma
UTI E coli; Staphylococcus saprophytic (young women)
vertebral compression fracture osteoporosis (type 1: postmenopausal women; type 2: elderly man or woman)
viral encephalopathies affecting temporal lobe HSV-1
Vitamin deficiency (US) Folate (pregnant women are at higher risk; body stores only 3-to-4-month supply; prevents neural tube defects
lecithin /sphingomyelin @30 weeks lecithin will rise and sphingomyelin will decrease . normal L/S ratio =>2. NRDS <1.5.
Lecithin dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine
histones are rich in lysine and arganine
cerebral perfusion equation CPP=MAP-ICP
corrected reculocyte count RC x Hematocrit then you divide that by 45. normal count is <1
GFAP astrocytes , oligodendroglioma, ependymoma
collapsing pressure equation p= 2 surface tension divide that by radius
just random reminders
DNA is negative and histones are octamer and positive
H1 binds to the nucleosome also called "linker DNA" and stabilises the chromatin fiber
DNA & histones are made in S phase
heterochromatin inactive , dark looking . Barr bodies inactive x chromosomes and heterochromatic
euchromatic looks lighter , transcriptionally active
DNA methylation template strand cytosine and adenine are methylated in DNA replication and allows mismatch repair enzyme to distinguish between old and new strands in prokaryotes
DNA methylation at CpG islands represses transcription
histone acetylation relaxes DNA coiling, allowing for transcription
GC bonds (3 H bonds) stronger than AT (2 Hydrogen bonds)
you gotta increase the temp if you want to separate GC bonds
Purine requires GAG glycine , aspartate, glutamine
deamination of cytosine makes uracil
methionine and tryptophan are the only two that are encoded by only 1 codon (AUG and UGG)
DNA is semiconservative
AT rich sequences are found in promoters and origins of replication
DNA polymerase 1 is only found in prokaryotes Degrade DNA primer , and replaces it with DNA . Same function as DNA polymerase 3 but also excises RNA primer with 5' -->3' exonuclease
DNA repair for SINGLE STRAND: base excision repair importnat in spontaneous / toxic deamination. cytosine deamination makes uracil. glycosylate-->endonuclease-->lyase-->beta polymerase --ligase
splice site for mutations in DNA retains introns in mRNA leads to a protein with impaired or altered function . examples are dementia, epilepsy, and some types of beta thalassemias
lac operon its just an example of genetic response to an environmental change. an example is Ecoli who likes glucose , but when no glucose and lactose is available then the lac operon is activated to switch to lactose metabolism.
low glucose leads to activation of adenylate cyclase then increase cAMP from ATP and activation then to catabolite activator protein aka CAP and that increases transcription
high lactose leads to unbind repressor protein from repressor /operator site and increases transcription
3 genes for mRNA to read and start transcription of lactose are LacZ, LacY, LacA
DNA and RNA are both made form the 5'3 .
The 5' end of the incoming nucleotide bears the triphosphate (energy source for bond)
Protein synthesis is N-terminus to C-terminus
mRNA is read 5' to 3'
mRNA start codons AUG or rarely GUG
Eukaryotes codes for methionine
prokaryotes codes for N-formylmethionine (fMet)
mRNA stop codons UGA, UAA, UAG
regulation of gene expression are : promotor, enhancer, silencer
promotor: site where RNA polymerase 2 and multiple other transcription factors bind to DNA upstream from gene locus (AT-rich upstream sequence with TATA and CAAT boxes)
enhancer: stretch of DNA that alters gene expression by binding transcription factors
silencer site where negative regulators (repressors) bind located close to or far from or even within the intron of the gene whose expression it regulates
RNA polymerases in EUKARYOTES RNA P 1: rRNA ..a ton of them. 2. mRNA (biggest one), 3. 5S rRNA, tRNA (smallest). No proofreading function, but can initiate chains. RNA polymerase 2 opens DNA at promotor site.
alpha amanitin in amanita phalloides (death cap mushrooms) inhibits RNA Polymerase 2, causes severe hepatotoxicity if ingested.
RNA polymerases in PROKARYOTES 1 RNA polymerase (multisubunit complex) makes all 3 kinds of RNA
RNA processing in EURAKYOTES the initial transcript is called heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA). hnRNA is then modified and becomes mRNA) next slide...
then in the nucleus: 1. a cap on the 5' end of 7-methylguanosine is added 2. polyadenylation of 3' end (about 200 A's) 3. splicing out introns . so capped, tailed, and spliced transcript is called mRNA.
then mRNA is taken out of the nucleus and into the cytosol for translation.
mRNA quality control happens in the cytoplasmic processing bodies called P bodies and those have.... exonuclease, decapping enzymes, and microRNAs; mRNAs may be stored in P-bodies for future translation.
Poly-A polymerase does not require a template. AAUAAA=polyadenylation signal
now splicing of pre-mRNA : 1. primary transcript combines with small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) and other proteins to form spliceosome 2. lariat shaped intermediate is generated 3. lariat is released to precisely remove intron and join 2 axons.
Antibodies to spliceosomal snRNPs (antismith antibodies) are highly specific for SLE. Anti -U1 RNP antibodies are highly associated with mixed connective tissue disease
exons have genetic info for coding protein and exit the nucleus and are expressed introns stay in the nucleus and dont code for DNA . problems with splicing variants can be found in cancers and beta thalassemias
microRNAs are small and non coding RNA molecules that posttrascriptionally regulate protein expression. Introns have these microRNA genes. They degrade or inactivate target mRNA and that decreases translation of protein. Abnormality in miRNAs can lead to malignancies (ex: by silencing an mRNA from tumor suppressor gene)
tRNA cloverleaf form, 75-90 nucleotides. anticodon end is opposite 3' aminoacyl end. All tRNA in prokaryotes and eukaryotes have CCA at 3' end. CCA can carry amino acids.
continuation of tRNA T-arm has the TYC aka ribothymidine, pseudouridine, cytidine) sequence necessary for tRNA ribosome binding. D arm: contains dihydrouridine residues necessary for tRNA recognition by the correct aminoacyl tRNA synthesise. Acceptor stem: the 5'-CCA-3'
charging for tRNA aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (1 per amino acid, matchmaker and uses ATP) it scrutinises amino acids before and after it binds to tRNA.
making of proteins: initiation, elongation and termination initiation: starts by GTP hydrolysis . 40 and 60 subunits = 80 in eukaryotes . 30 and 50 = 70 in eukaryotes. ATP: tRNA activation , GTP: tRNA gripping and going paces (translocation)
elongation: 1. aminoacyl tRNA binds to A site (except for initiator methionine) 2. rRNA accommodates growing peptide 3. ribosome moves 3 nucleotides towards the 3' end of mRNA then moving peptide tRNA to P site (translocation)
A site: incoming Aminoacyl-tRNA P site: accommodates growing peptides E site: holds empty tRNA as it exits
post translation or modification of protein after making it: trimming: removal of N and C terminal to generate mature protein (ex: trypsinogen to trypsin) Covalent alterations: Phosphophorylation, glycosylation etc etc
Chaperone protein : found inside the cells that help and maintain protein folding
preoteosome degrades damaged or ubiquinated tagged proteins and have been found in cases of parkinson disease
collagen synthesis synthesis: Glycine aka GLY-X-Y (x and y are proline and lysine) hydroxylation: of proline and lysine. needs vitamin c. glycosylation: adds sugar to pro alpha chain. makes triple helix here too by adding hydrogen and disulphide bonds . problem: OI
exocytosis: getting ready to come out proteolytic processing: cuts off disulfide rich terminal regions and makes it insoluble tropocollagen. cross linking: cross linking by copper containing lysyl oxidase to make collagen fibrils. bad cross linking: ehlers danlos syndrome and menkes (ATP7A)..bc of low lysol oxidase)
type of non hodkin lymphoma diffuse large b cell lymphoma
UTI e.coli, staph saprophyticus (young women)
vertebral compression fracture osteoporosis (type 1: postmenopausal woman; type 2: elderly man or woman)
viral encephalitis affecting temporal lobe HSV-1
vitamin deficiency (USA) folate (pregnant women are at high risk; body stores only 3 to 4 months supply; prevents neural tube defect)
primary amenorrhea turner 45xo or 45,xo/46xx mosaic
primary bone tumor in adults multiple myeloma
primary hyperaldesteronism adenoma of adrenal cortex
primary hyperparathyroidism adenomas, hyperplasia, carcinoma
primary liver cancer hepatocellular carcinoma (chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, hemochromatosis, alpha1 antitrypsin deficiency, wilson disease
pulmonary hypertension idiopathic, heritable (BMPR2), left heart disease ex HF, lung disease ex cold, hypoxemic vasoconstriction ex OSA, thromboembolic ex PE
recurrent inflammation /thrombosis of small /medium vessels in extremities buerger disease (associated w/ smoking)
refractory peptic ulcer and high gastrin level zollinger ellison syndrome (gastronome of duodenum or pancreas ) associated with MEN1
renal tumor renal cell carcinoma: associated with 1. von hippie lindau and smoking; 2. paraneoplastic syndrome (EPO, renin, PTHrP, ACTH)
right heart failure due to a pulmonary cause cor pulmonale
s3 heart sound increase ventricular filling pressure (ex : mitral regurgitation, HF, common in dilated ventricles)
s4 heart sound stiff/hypertrophic ventricle (aortic stenosis, restrictive cardiomyopathy)
secondary hyperparathyroidism hypocalcemina of chronic kidney disease
sexually transmitted disease c trichomatis (usually infected also with gonorrhoea)
site of diverticula sigmoid colon
site of atherosclerosis abdominal aorta then coronary artery then popliteal artery then carotid artery
t 14:18 follicular lymphoma BCL2 activation, anti apoptotic oncogene
8:14 burkitt lymphoma , c-myc fusion, transcription factor oncogene
9:22 philadelphia chromosome, CML (BCR-ABL activation, tyrosine kinase oncogene)
temporal arteritis risk of ipsilateral blindness due to occlusion of ophthalmic artery; polymyalgia rheumatica
testicular cancer seminoma (malignant , radiosensitive), increased placental ALP
thyroid cancer papillary carcinoma (childhood irradiation )
tumor in women leiomyoma (oestrogen dependent , not precancerous )
tumor in infancy strawberry hemangioma (grows rapidly and regresses spontaneously by childhood )
tumor of adrenal medulla (adults) pheochromocytoma (usually benign)
tumor of adrenal medulla (kids) neuroblastoma (malignant)
type of hodgkin lymphoma nodular sclerosing (vs. mixed cellularity, lymphatic predominance, lymphocytic depletion)
Created by: larissasz



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