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BJUBiology 10.1-10.2

Bob Jones Biology Fourth Edition Chapter 10 sections 10.1-10.2 Study Stack.

QuestionAnswer
What is the role of bacteria in decomposition? In these processes, bacteria feed upon decaying organic materials initially, while in the later stages of decomposition mites, millipedes, centipedes, springtails, beetles and earthworms further breakdown and enrich the composting materials.
Summarize the difference between the kingdoms Eubacteria and Archaebacteria. Archaebacteria are characterized by having different cell call components, coenzymes and RNA Sequences compared to bacteria. Eubacteria have a rigid cell wall. However, they can be both gram positive and gram-negative.
What are the basic cellular shapes of bacteria? Most bacteria come in one of three basic shapes: coccus, rod or bacillus, and spiral.
Describe the cellular structure of a bacterial cell. It is a gel-like matrix made of water, enzymes, nutrients, wastes, and gases and holds cell structures such as ribosomes, a chromosome, and plasmids. The cell envelope encases the cytoplasm and all its components.
Define bacteria. A member of a large group of unicellular microorganisms that have cell walls but lack organelles and an organized nucleus, including some that can cause disease.
Define disease. A disorder of structure or function in a human, animal, or plant, especially one that produces specific signs or symptoms or that affects a specific location and is not simply a direct result of physical injury.
Define decomposer organism. Decomposers are organisms that break down dead or decaying organisms, and in doing so, they carry out the natural process of decomposition.
Define cyanobacteria. A phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
Define filament. A long chain of proteins, such as those found in hair, muscle, or in flagella.
Define coccus. Any spherical or roughly spherical bacterium.
Define bacillus. A rod-shaped bacterium.
Define spirillum. A bacterium with a rigid spiral structure, found in stagnant water and sometimes causing disease.
Define capsule. The cell capsule is a very large structure of some prokaryotic such as bacterial cells. It is a polysaccharide layer that lies outside the cell envelope of bacteria, and is thus deemed part of the outer envelope of a bacterial cell.
Define nucleoid region. The nucleoid (meaning nucleus-like) is an irregularly shaped region within the cell of a prokaryote that contains all or most of the genetic material, called genophore.
Describe bacterial reproduction. Bacteria reproduce by binary fission. In this process the bacterium, which is a single cell, divides into two identical daughter cells. Binary fission begins when the DNA of the bacterium divides into two (replicates).
Summarize how bacteria obtain energy. Bacteria can obtain energy by photosynthesis, decomposing dead organisms or breaking down chemical compounds. They can obtain energy and nutrients by establishing close relationships with other organisms, including mutualistic and parasitic relationships.
List the conditions needed for bacterial growth. Moisture, temperature, pH, and nutrition.
Define binary fission. A method of asexual reproduction that involves the splitting of a parent cell into two daughter cells.
Define conjugation. Conjugation is the process by which one bacterium transfers genetic material to another through direct contact.
Define transformation. In molecular biology, transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct uptake and incorporation of exogenous genetic material from its surroundings through the cell membrane(s).
Define chemosynthetic bacteria. Chemosynthetic bacteria are organisms that use inorganic molecules as a source of energy and convert them into organic substances.
Define parasitic. An organism that obtains nourishment and shelter on another organism.
Define saprophytic. A saprophyte or saprotroph is an organism which gets its energy from dead and decaying organic matter.
Define endospore. A resistant asexual spore that develops inside some bacteria cells.
Created by: AnxietyGirl13