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science ch 6

vocab words

QuestionAnswer
dominant Referring to an allele that masks the presence of another allele (called recessive) for the same gene when both are present in a heterozygote; or referring to a trait controlled by such an allele.
genetics Science of heredity, or how traits are passed from parents to offspring.
law of independent assortment Mendel's second law of inheritance that states that factors (alleles) controlling different traits go to gametes independently of each other.
law of segregation Mendel's first law of inheritance that states that factors (alleles) that control a given trait separate and go to different gametes.
Mendel Austrian monk who lived in the 1800s and discovered the laws of inheritance by careful, repeated experiments with pea plants; called the "father of genetics".
pollination Process by which pollen is transferred from a male reproductive structure of a plant to a female reproductive structure of the same plant or a different plant of the same species so fertilization can occur.
recessive Referring to an allele that is masked by the presence of another allele (called dominant) for the same gene when both are present in a heterozygote; or referring to a trait controlled by such an allele.
allele One of the alternate versions of a particular gene. autosome: Any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome.
genotype Combination of alleles that an individual inherits for a given gene.
heterozygote Type of genotype in which an individual has two different alleles for a gene.
homozygote Type of genotype in which an individual has two of the same allele for a gene.
phenotype Expression of an organism's genotype as a trait in the organism.
Punnett square Chart for determining the possible genotypes and their likely ratios in offspring of two parents of given genotypes.
sex chromosome One of two chromosomes (in humans, X or Y chromosomes) that determine the sex of an individual in a sexually reproducing species.
sex-linked trait trait controlled by a gene on a sex chromosome.
biotechnology Use of technology to change the genetic makeup of living things for human purposes.
gene therapy Treatment of a genetic disorder by inserting a normal gene into a patient with a defective gene.
genetically modified organism (GMO) Organism that has been given one or more new genes so it will have traits that make it more useful to people:
genetic disorder Disease caused by a mutation.
genome All the genetic information of a species.
Human Genome Project International effort to sequence all 3 billion bases in human DNA, which began in 1990 and achieved its goal by 2003.
Created by: tmanfred