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Swift soils keyterms

litter the loose layer of dead plant leaves and stems on the surface of the soil
decomposer an organism that breaks down wastes and dead organisms
Dust Bowl the area of the Great Plains where wind erosion caused soil loss during the 1930s
soil conservation the management of soil to prevent its destruction
contour plowing plowing fields along the curves of a slope to prevent soil loss
conservation plowing – soil conservation method in which the dead stalks from the previous year’s crop are left in the ground to hold the soil in place
crop rotation the planting of different crops in a field each year to maintain the soil’s fertility
erosion – the process by which water, wind, ice or gravity moves weathered rock and soil
sediment small solid pieces of material that come from rocks or organisms
deposition the process by which sediment settles out of the water or wind that is carrying it
mass movement any one of several processes by which gravity moves sediment downhill
weathering the chemical and physical processes that break down rock at Earth’s surface
erosion the process by which water, wind, ice, or gavity moves weathered rock and soil
mechanical weathering the type of weathering in which rock is physically broken into smaller pieces
abrasion the grinding away of rock by other rock particles carried in water, ice, or wind
ice wedging process that splits rock when water seeps into cracks, then freezes and expands
chemical weathering the process that breaks down rock through chemical change
oxidation a chemical change in which a substance combines with oxygen, as when iron oxidizes (rusts)
soil the loose weathered material on Earth’s surface in which plants can grow
bedrock the solid layer of rock beneath the soil
humus dark-colored organic material in soil
fertility a measure of how well soil supports plant growth
soil horizon the layer of soil that differs in color and texture from the layers above or below it
topsoil an upper layer of soil consisting of rock fragments, nutrients, water, air, and decaying plant and animal matter
subsoil the layer of soil beneath the topsoil that contains mostly clay and other minerals
Created by: dswift