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chapter 6 anatomy

75 anatomy cards

contractility the ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force
excitability the compacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus
extensibility the ability to be stretched
elasticity ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched
Each skeletal muscle is surrounded by connective tissue sheath called the epimysium
What is the connective tissue located outside the epimysium? Fascia
A muscle is composed of numerous visible bundles called muscle fasciculi (fascicle)
What surrounds fascicles? Perimysium
Each muscle fiber is surrounded by endomysium
The cytoplasm each fiber is filled with myofibrils
Thin myofilaments Actin
Thick myofilaments Myosin
Sarcomere basic structural and functional unity of the muscle
Each sarcomere extends from one _______ to the other. Z line
What's on either side of the Z line? I band
What extends the length of myosin? A band
Darker central region of each sarcomere A band
Light area in the center of sarcomere H zone- consists of myosin
Dark staining band in sarcomere M line
Resting membrane potential charge difference across membrane
Action Potential brief reversal back of the charge
motor neurons nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers
Neuromuscular junction synapse
motor unit a single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates
Presynaptic terminal contains synaptic vesicles; secrete a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine
acetylcholinesterase breaks down acetylcholine
sliding filament mechanism the sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments during contraction
muscle twitch is a contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers
A muscle fiber will not respond to stimulus until that stimulus reaches a level called threshold
The time of contraction is contraction phase
The time during which the muscle relaxes is relaxation phase
Tetany where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing
The increase in number of motor units being activated is recruitment
ATP adenosine triphosphate
ADP adenosine diphosphate
ATP degenerates to ADP plus phosphate
ATP is produced in the mitochondria
Anaerobic respiration without oxygen
aerobic respiration with oxygen
Muscle fatigue results when ATP is used by muscles faster than it can be produced
Isometric contractions (equal distance) the length of the muscle doesn't change but the amount of tension increases during the contraction process
Isotonic contractions (equal tension) the amount of tension produced by the muscle is constant during contraction, but the length of the muscle changes
fast-twitch fibers contract quickly and fatigue quickly
slow-twitch fibers contract more slowly and more resistant to fatigue
Origin most stationary end of the muscle
Insertion end of muscle undergoing greatest movement
Belly portion of the muscle between origin and insertion
Synergists muscles that work together to accomplish a specific movement
Antagonists muscles that work in opposition to one another
Among a group of synergists, if one muscle plays the major role in accomplishing the desired movement, it's the prime mover
Occipitofrontalis raises the eyebrows
orbicularis oculi closes the eyelid
orbicularis oris puckers the lips
Buccinator flattens the cheeks
Zygomaticus smiling
Levator labii superioris sneering
Depressor anguli oris frowning
mastification chewing
Sternocleidomastoid lateral neck muscle and prime mover
Trapezius rotates scapula
Serratus anterior pulls scapula anteriorly
pectoralis major adducts and flexes the arm
Latissimus dorsi "Swimmer muscles"
Triceps brachii posterior compartment of arm
biceps brachii anterior compartment of the arm
flexor carpi flexes the wrist
extensor carpi extends the wrist
quadriceps femoris anterior thigh muscles
sartorius "tailor's muscle" flexes the thigh
hamstrings posterior thigh muscles
intrinsic tongue muscles change the shape of the tongue
extrinsic tongue muscles move the tongue
external intercostals elevate the ribs during inspiration
Internal intercostals contract during forced expiration
rectus abdominis on each side of linea alba
Tendinous inscriptions cross the rectus abdominis at three or more locations, causing the abdominal wall of a well-muscled person to appear segmented
Created by: codystanley1234