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Earth science midter

Midterms for earth science 7 grade 2018

What are the 4 fallacies? Ad hominem, post hoc, circular reasoning, pretended neutrality
Describe the ad hominem fallacy attacking the character of the man, rather than their argument
Describe the post hoc fallacy false cause, how superstitions starr (this happened, so that must be the cause; ex: a black cat walls in front of me and I have bad luck, therefore the cat caused it)
Describe circular reasoning assume what you hope to prove (ex: pizza tastes good because its the best food ever)
Describe pretended neutrality Claim to have no presupposition
What are the first and second laws of thermodynamics 1st Law: matter cannot be created or destroyed ~ 2nd Law: order goes to disorder and it cannot go to order without an outside cause
List 5 of the 9 limits of science 1. Only deals with observable 2. Cannot prove a universal negative 3. Cannot make value judgement 4. Cannot make moral judgements 5. Inability to produce final questions 6. is fallable 7. models are not reality 8. is limited by God 9. is subject to bias
Hipparchus: country, theory, publications (if they have any) Greece, geocentric, no publications
Ptolemy: country, theory, publications (if they have any) Egypt, geocentric, The Almagast
Nicolas Copernicus: country, theory, publications (if they have any) Poland, heliocentric, Revolutions
Tycho Brahe: country, theory, publications (if they have any) Denmark, geocentric, no publications
Johannes Kepler : country, theory, publications (if they have any) Germany, heliocentric, New Astronomy
Galileo Galilei: country, theory, publications (if they have any) Italy, heliocentric, Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems
Isaac Newton: country, theory, publications (if they have any) England, heliocentric, Principia
Name one evidence of the earth's motion Rotation: inertia (Foucault pendulum); the coriolis effect; the earth's shape bulges at the equator (centripical acceleration) Revolution: seasons; stellar parallax; meteoric evidence
Why does the tilt of the earth's axis produce seasons Of the earth wasn't tilted at its axis the northern hemisphere and the southern hemisphere would both have winter in January and and summer in July
What are the parts and types of optical telescopes ???????? maybe search google? IDK!
be able to use right ascension and declination to find stars Right Ascension- is measured in hours, min, & sec and goes this way: _________ side to side~ Declination- is measured in degrees and goes this way: I up and down
what is the Hipparchus brightness scale? negative numbers are at the top, positive # on the bottom, +6 is the faintest; lesser the number, the brighter
what is the difference between radial and proper motion? proper motion: movement across the sky as we see it ~ radial motion: movement directly toward or away from us
know an unusual star and be able to describe it eclipsing binaries: 2 stars orbiting each other object; Cepheid variable: changes in brightness because it expands and contracts regularly; novae: explodes but is not destroyed; supernovae: explodes and is destroyed; neutron star: is left by supernovae
name and describe one type of nebulae emission: glow, gases are heated by near by stars; reflection: light from nearby stars bounces off dust/gas; planetary: ring shaped; dark: clouds of dust, have no nearby light sources; supernova remnants: when a supernova causes a shock ejecting matter
be able to classify a planet by position and size a planet in-between the sun and earth are called inferior planets and planet farther that the earth are called superior planets; gas giants are large, gaseous planets; a terrestrial planet is small and rocky
explain why we know the moon has a thing atmosphere when scientists observe the moon passing a star the star isn't that dim because of the thin atmosphere
know the phases of the moon google it
Created by: GuineaPigwca