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fall semester exam for science!

What is the big bang theory and evidence to support it? All matter and energy compressed into a very small volume, it sent all the matter and energy into the universe outward.
What is Hubble’s Law? States that the rate at which a galaxy is moving directly proportional from us.
What is the cosmic microwave background and why does it not hurt us? Its wavelength radiation that fills all space, it doesn’t harm us because it’s so small and un-powerful that it won’t do anything.
What is an astronomical unit? Distance from earth to sun. 150 million km.
What is a light year? Distance light travels in a year.
Compare and contrast the 2 different types of telescopes. Reflecting and refracting. Reflecting uses curved mirrors to gather and focus objects, the mirrors don't affect the quality of the image so it can be larger. Refracting uses a set of lenses, but the lenses focus different colors of different distances.
What is the difference between rotation and revolution, Name an example of each. Rotation is inside the object (fidget spinner) , revolution is outside the object (duck duck goose).
What are the criteria to be a planet? You have to rotate the sun, have to be a sphere, and you have to “clear your neighborhood”.
What are Kepler’s Laws? Law of Eclipse- each planet's orbit is not a circle, but an eclipse. Laws of Equal Areas- speed of which objects travel at different points in orbit. Laws of Periods-Relationship between average distance of planet from sun and orbital period.
What is the eccentricity of 0 and 1 mean? 0 means perfect circle, 1 is very elongated.
Compare and contrast the inner and outer planets. Inner planets have more dense materials. They're more rocky. Outer planets are much further away from the sun, colder, have light elements, low density.
Name the 3 lunar formation theories and how they are different. The Giant impact hypothesis, Co-formation theory, and the capture theory. They are different bc either it formed from something huge hitting it(Giant Impact), Earth and the Moon formed at the same time(Co-formation), or it didn’t form with earth.
What is the difference between a lunar and solar eclipse? Solar- moon comes between the Moon and the Sun. Lunar-When the moon comes between the Sun and the Moon.
What are the differences between an asteroid, comet, and meteor? Asteroids- small rocky objects that orbit the sun. Most are in asteroid belt. Comets- Small bodies of rock, ice, and cosmic dust that orbits the sun. Meteor- Enters up atmosphere and burns up, known as shooting star.
What are the parts of a comet? Core- Rock, metal, and ice. Coma- surrounds core, spherical cloud of dust that goes 1 million km from nucleus. Ion-tail- Always points away from sun. Dust tail- curves behind comet.
What are the differences between a meteoroid, meteor, and a meteorite? Meteoroid-small, rocky object in space. Meteor- Enters earth’s atmosphere and burns up. Meteorite- when a meteor hits the surface.
What is nuclear fusion and how does it produce energy? 4 hydrogen molecules smack together and fuse, forms 1 helium molecule.
What is the life cycle of a giant star? Nebula, Protostar, Main sequence, giant, white dwarf, black dwarf or a nova.
What is the life cycle of a supergiant star? Nebula, Protostar, Main sequence, super giant , supernova, neutron star or a black hole.
How are all the heavy elements in the universe created? Fuse together inside of stars and when they go supernova, they throw these elements into space so they can create other things.
What are the 4 spheres and what they consist of? Atmosphere mixture of gasses, hydrosphere portion of earth that’s water, geosphere mostly solid part of earth, biosphere part where life exists contains all living things.
What is the nitrogen cycle and how does it work? Organisms need nitrogen 2build protein. can't use nitrogen in atmosphere. has to be fixed. Nitrogen removed from atmosphere by bacteria that live in soil + roots. Animals eat plants that have nitrogen. Nitrogen returns back to atmosphere after animal dies
What is the carbon cycle and how does it work? Plants convert CO2 into glucose(sugar), then organisms eat plants and get that carbon. Then break down and release the CO2 back into the atmosphere. Also breathe out as waste and by decay.
What is the water cycle and how does it work? evaporation goes to cloud precipitation rain or snow condensation falls back down
What is the phosphorus cycle and how does it work? Enters soil and water when rock breaks down or when is dissolved in the water. Plants absorb the water in the their roots and animals eat things with it in it. When plants/animals die, it decomposes and returns back to the soil.
Difference between a food chain and a food web with an example of each. Food Chain- series of organisms each dependent on the next as a source of food.( Grass-Grasshopper-Spider-bird ) Food web- a system of interlocking and interdependent food chains. (frog eats grasshoppers, worms, and rats-- Birds and snakes eat frogs)
Longitude vs Latitude latitude is east to west longitude is north south
What is a cylindrical map and how is it made? Take a sheet of paper and wrapping it around a globe, tracing land masses. Meridians appear straight, so more accurate near equators. Helps parallels and meridians to form a grid.
What is an azimuthal map and how is it made? Made by putting a sheet of paper against a transparent globe to where it only touching in one place. But distorts where it touches and shows uneven space between parallels. Plotting routes for air travel b/c it shows shortest routes.
What is a conic map and how is it made? Placing a cone over a lighted globe so the cone aligns with a parallel. Location they touch is least distorted, so uses a series of them to help create a good map.
What is a legend on a map and an example of something that would be on one? It’s like the key to a map, gives you the exact info to understand what the map is telling you. Ex. bathrooms at a waterpark.
What are the types of scales on a map? Graphic- printed line to express scale. Fractional- uses ratios to express scale. Verbal- uses words to express scales
What is a topographical map and the general information about it? Shows surface features on a map, either natural or man made. Shows elevation.
What is the difference between physical & chemical properties? The physical properties are aspects of things that are observed or measured without changing its chemical compositions. Chemical properties can be observed by changing its chemical composition.
What are the three subatomic particles, their charge, and their location? Proton positive and in the nucleus neutron neutral in nucleus , electron negative in electron cloud.
What is the difference between atomic mass and atomic number? mass is the sum of proton and neutrons in the nucleus. number is number of only protons in nucleus.
How are compounds and molecules different? A molecule is formed when two or more atoms of an element chemically join together. A compound is a substance that is formed when two or more different elements.
What is the criteria to be a mineral? Naturally occuring, inorganic, solid in crystalline form, and consistent chemical composition
Name physical properties used to identify minerals and then special properties. color, hardness, luster, streak, cleavage. Special: fluorescence, asterism, magnetism, refraction.
Compare and contrast the three types of rocks. Metamorphic was formed by pressure and heat, igneous is formed by filling of lava, sedimentary is formed by sediments being compressed and hardened.
What is the difference between intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks and how it makes a difference? Extrusive rocks were formed above ground, intrusive were formed underground.
What are textures for igneous rocks and explain them? Extrusive rocks were formed above ground, intrusive were formed underground.
What processes create sedimentary rocks and explain them? Compaction and cementation. Compaction is when it is squeezed so the pore size between them is reduced. Cementation is when sediments are “glued” together by minerals deposited by water.
What are the 3 types of sedimentary rocks and their differences? Chemical, organic, clastic. Chemical formed from minerals that were once dissolved by water but have now precipitated out. Organic is formed from remains of once living things. Clastic is formed when fragments compact or cement together.
What are the two types of metamorphism? Contact metamorphism- metamorphose by contact with magma. Only affects small area. Regional Meta. - Tectonic forces, affects large areas.
How can we classify metamorphic rocks? Foliated- Minerals in bands of planes. Re-align/pressure caused by extreme pressure. Non-foliated- does not form bands, at least 1 or 2 things, mostly has 1 mineral, grains are round or square.
What is the law of superposition and how does it tell us the age of rock layers? Sedimentary rock layers is older than layers above it an younger than layers below it.
What are clues to tell where the original rock layer should be? Graded bedding-larger particles sink2 bottom, largest2top, layer prob flipped.Cross beds-sand deposited,sandy sediments form curved beds.Tops layers normally eroded so top seems cutoff+bottom curved.Ripple marks-formed by water/wind, crest norm points up.
What is the law of crosscutting relationship? An igneous rock, fault, or other geologic feature must be younger than any rock across which it cuts.
What are the ways to find the absolute age of rocks and explain them. Rates/erosion-thiErodeEachother.Rates/deposition-rateSed. depositedOverLong prd/time.CarveCountLayer/sand+silt deposited n lake1 laye=1 year.RadiometricDating-radioactivityMaterial,compare%ofRadioact. iso.+stable isotope.CarbonDating-organicMatter,14C-12C
What is a half-life? The time required for half for half a sample to be broke down by radioactive decay to form daughter isotopes.
What are the 5 different ways to fossilize an organism and how are they different? mummification-bacteriaCan’t break down,deccication,break easy.amber-hardenTreeResin,gr8Reserving,SmallOrganisms.tarSeeps-getTrapped,preservesWell.freezingLowTempsProtect+preserveOrganism,bacteriaCan’tDecayBc2cold.pretrification-mineral solutionsReplaceOrg
What are the 5 types of different fossils and how are they different? imprint-leaves,stems,fish n mud,leavesCO2film.molds-shells leave emptycavities.casts-replica of original organism.coprolites- fossilized waste can tell eating habits.gastroliths-dinosaur had stones n bellies2grind up food trace fossils-fossilized mark for
Name some information we can only know by the bones of an organism and some information we have to guess at. . We know its approximate size, strength,age, and ect. We would not know its dietary habits, sleeping habits, skin texture, and ect.
What’s the difference between an era, a period, and an epoch? Epoch is longer than an era. Era is a long amount of time marking the start and the end of important event. A period is large interval of time.
What is evolution and how does it work? Changes that happen to an environments over time.
Created by: lmccoy87