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Pharmacology Quiz #1

True/False: The reaction to pain is a subjective experience TRUE
What is substance P? The neurotransmitter for pain
Definition: medications used to relieve pain Analgesics
What are the 2 most important receptors in pain management? Mu + Kappa
What are the drugs of choice for moderate to severe pain? Opioids
How are Opioids classified? Effectiveness
What 2 categories are opiates placed in? strong + moderate
Definition: the standard against which the effectiveness of every other opioid is compared representative drug
What opioid agonist is the representative drug used to treat severe pain? morphine
Drug action: suppress cough, slow GI motility, sedation, euphoria Morphine
What is the most dangerous side effect of Opioid Agonists? respiratory depression
Codeine, Oxycodone, Propoxyphene are all common opioid agonists with _________ effectiveness moderate
Demerol, Dilaudid and Duramorph are all common opioid agonists with ___________ effectiveness high
What 2 classes of drugs work synergistically to relieve pain? opioids + non-narcotic analgesics
What non-narcotic analgesic is used the most in combination with an opioid? acetaminophen (Tylenol)
What do Vicodin, Percocet and Darvocet all have in common? combinations with acetaminophen
Definition: substances that prevent the effects of opioid agonists opioid antagonists
What analgesic category is used to treat an opioid overdose or respiratory depression? Opioid Antagonist
Naloxone (Narcan) is an opioid_________. antagonist
What is the drug of choice in an acute opioid overdose? Narcan
What is important to remember when reversing the effects of opioids? patient may experience rapid loss of analgesia and feel pain
__________ inhibit cyclooxygenase. NSAIDs
cyclooxygenase is an enzyme that inhibits ___________. prostaglandins
What is the drug of choice for mild-moderate pain? NSAIDS
A high dose of NSAIDS can increase the risk of what? heart attack + stroke
What is an adverse effect of NSAIDS? GI bleeding/irritation
What is a side effect of Celebrex? Heart Attack
Celecoxib (Celebrex) selective COX-2 inhibitor
Ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) and Naproxen Sodium (Aleve) Non Selective
Why were many of the COX-2 inhibitors removed from the market? Cardiovascular reasons
What is the most common analgesic used for relief of slight-moderate pain? Aspirin
__________ inhibit platelet aggregation. Aspirin
What is a side effect of Aspirin? GI bleeding
True/False: Acetaminophen (Tylenol) is an anti-inflammatory agent. False: anti-pyretic
What is the maximum Tylenol dosage in a day? 4 grams
What is the most common kind of headache? tension headache
What is one of the most common complaints of patients? Headache
What is the most painful type of headache? migraine
Definition: characterized by throbbing or pulsating pain, sometimes proceeded by an aura migraines
What are the 2 primary goals for pharmacology therapy of a migraine? Stop + Prevent
sumatriptan Imitrex
Definition: stimulate serotonin receptors which constricts certain vessels within the brain in order to stop migraine Triptans
What are Ergot Alkaloids used for? patients unresponsive to triptans
Ergot Alkaloids are a pregnancy category___. X
What is the action of headache medications? vasoconstriction
what drug class prevents migraines? Beta Blockers
Definition: group of neurotransmitters released from neurons in CNS endogenous opioids
__________ opioids block the release of substance P in the spinal cord Endogenous
What are the 2 basic categories of analgesics? Opioids + Non-opioids
Definition: medications used to relieve pain analgesics
Definition: substances that produce analgesia and CNS depression Narcotics
popoxyphene hydrochloride Darvon
hydromorphone hydrochloride Dilaudid
meperidine hydrochloride Demerol
Morphine sulfate Duramorph
What are the benefits of combination medications? lower dose, less side effects, no addiction
oxycodone Percocet
popoxyphene napsylate Darvocet
Salicylates Aspirin
clonidine Catapres
tamadol Ultram
Catapres + Ultram centrally acting non-opioid drugs
Imitrex is a type of ________. Triptan
The nervous system is divided into what 2 systems? CNS + Peripheral
Definition: consists of brain + spinal cord CNS
The Peripheral Nervous System is divided into 2 divisions? Motor(somatic) + Autonomic
Definition: voluntary control over skeletal muscles Motor (Somatic)
Definition: involuntary control over smooth muscle, cardiac muscle/glands Autonomic
The autonomic system is divided into 2 sub-systems? Sympathetic + Parasympathetic
Fight or Flight Sympathetic
Rest + Digest Parasympathetic
Definition: junction between neurons synapse
What are the 2 primary Neurotransmitters? Norepinephrine +Acetylcholine
Sympathetic nerves Adrenergic
Parasympathetic nerves Cholinergic
Beta blocker that affects the heart? Beta1
Beta blocker that affects the lungs Beta2
What are the 2 receptor subtypes of Acetylcholine? nicotinic + muscarinic
Sympathomimetics adrenergic agents
Parasympathomimetics cholinergic agents
Sympatholytics adrenergic blockers
Anticholinergics cholinergic blockers
________ agents are used for their effects on the heart, bronchial tree and nasal passages adrenergic
albuterol (Proventil) stimulates beta2 receptors in the _____. lungs
What is the disadvantage of nonselective agents? more side effects
Definition: stimulate more than 1 type of receptor nonselective
Definition: stimulate one receptor selective
pseudoephedrine (__________ )stimulates alpha + beta receptors Sudafed
phenlyephrine Neo-Synephrine
dobutamine Dobutrex
dopamine Inotropin
albuterol Proventil
epinephrine Adrenalin
isoproterenol Isuprel
norepinephrine Levophed
salmeterol Serevent
What are adrenergic blockers used to primarily treat? HTN
What is the most widely used class of autonomic drugs? adrenergic blockers
A direct acting cholinergic agent used to reduce intraocular pressure? Pilocarpine
A direct acting cholinergic agent used to stimulate the smooth muscle of the bowel or urinary tract after anesthesia? Bethanechol
_________ acting agent inhibits acetlcholinesterase (the breakdown of Ach) Indirect
bethanechol Urecholine
pyridostigmine Mestinon
_________ is a cholinergic agent used to treat myasthenia gravis. Mestinon
What are anti-cholinergic agents primarily used for? Asthma + Dry secretion
What are the side effects of Anticholinergic agents? Dry mouth, constipation,urinary retention, tachycardia
__________ is an anticholinergic agent used to dry secretions prior to anesthesia. Atropine
_________ is an anti-cholinergic agent used to treat asthma. Atrovent
__________ is an anti-cholinergic agent used to treat IBS + motion sickness Hyoscine
Definition: disorder characterized by recurrent seizures Epilepsy
Definition: involuntary violent spasms of the large skeletal muscles Convulsions
Definition: disturbances of electrical activity in the brain caused by abnormal/uncontrollable neuronal discharges Seizures
Some ant seizure medications may _________ effectiveness of oral contraceptives during pregnancy decrease
Antiseizure meds are pregnancy category____ D
How long is seizure medication withdrawn? 6-12 weeks
What is the goal of an anti-seizure medication? to suppress neuronal activity JUST ENOUGH to prevent abnormal or repetitive firing
High concentrations of sodium,calcium and chloride located________the cell. outside
High concentrations of _________ inside the cell. potassium
What are the 3 mechanisms for ant seizure drugs? 1. Stimulating chloride 2. Delay sodium 3. Delay calcium
What is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain? GABA
What 2 drug classes intensify GABA action? Barbiturates + Benzodiazapines
Benzodiazepines are used for _______ control. short term
What drug is used to treat status epilepticus? Diazepam (Valium)
Created by: deandanl