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Last Biology Test

Flashcards from Interdependence section

QuestionAnswer
What is nitrification? Conversion of Nitrogen compounds in the soil to nitrites and nitrates
What is denitrification? putting nitrogen back into the atmosphere as gas
What is assimilation? the uptake of Nitrogen by organisms
What is nitrogen fixation? Bacteria on plant roots turn Nitrogen gas into ammonia
Which cycle does not involve the air? The Phosphorus cycle
What are the causes of global warming? The human expansion of the greenhouse effect
What is the greenhouse effect? Warming that results when the atmosphere traps heat radiating from the Earth toward space
What are the two main greenhouse gases? Methane and Carbon dioxide
How is carbon dioxide released? Respiration and the burning of fossil fuels
How is methane released? Comes from cow waste
What is a producer? A producer is something that makes its own food from energy from the sun
What is a primary consumer? Something that eats producers
What is a secondary consumer? Something that eats mainly primary consumers
What is a tertiary consumer? Something that eats mainly secondary consumers
What is a prey adaptation? Something that protects prey from predators such as wideset eyes and camouflage
What is a predator adaptation? Something that helps a predator hunt prey such as speed and sharp claws
What is a density independent factor? An abiotic factor that effects populations of different sizes equally such as a fire of flood
What is a density dependent factor? A biotic factor that effects smaller populations more than larger populations such as a predator or disease
What is a small scale disturbance? A disturbance to an ecosystem that is localized such as small wind events, mild droughts, and small wildfires
What is a large scale disturbance? A disturbance to an ecosystem that is large-scale such as long droughts, volcanic eruptions, and epidemics
What is primary succession? When a population grows in a lifeless area with no soil/rocks
What is secondary succession? When a population grows back after a disturbance
What is a trophic level? A level on the energy pyramid
What is biomagnification? When small animals ingest DDT, which accumulates in large animals when they eat many small animals
What is biomass? The amount of energy that is converted into living tissue at the different trophic levels
How much energy goes into each level of the energy pyramid? Only 10% of energy in the lower level is passed on to the level directly above it
Where does all energy come from? The sun
How is energy in the pyramid lost? 90% is lost as heat
What is a carrying capacity? The carrying capacity of an ecosystem is the number of organisms the ecosystem can successfully sustain
What is an exponential growth model? A J curve model, is when a population size grows continually due to unlimited resources and makes a J shape
What is a logistic growth model? An S curve, is when a population's growth is dependent on the carrying capacity of the environment and makes an s shape
What is a survivorship graph? A graph that shows the survival rate of types 1, 2, and 3 species
What is a type 1 species? A species such as humans, that reproduces slowly but is most likely to survive through pre-reproductive age and die in post-reproductive age
What is a type 2 species? A species such a bird that reproduces often and steadily dies off through each phase of life
What is a type 3 species? A species such as a frog that reproduces quickly but is most likely to die before it makes it to reproductive age
What is a K selected species? A type 1 species, has a low growth rate that causes the population to increase slowly; large animals
What is an R selected species? A type 3 species, has a high growth rate that usually leads to population die off; small animals
Created by: alexprice