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Earth and Environmental Science

Igneous rock rock that forms when magma cools and solidifies
Porphyritic igneous rock that has a mixture of large and small crystals (ex: granite)
Vesicular igneous rock that has holes produced from gas bubbles trapped during the cooling process. (ex: pumice)
Felsic describes magma or igneous rock that is rich in feldspars and silica and that is generally light in color.
Mafic describes magma or igneous rock that is rich in magnesium and iron and that is generally dark in color.
Intrusive intrusive igneous rock has cooled slowly inside the ground, and has large crystals
Extrusive extrusive igneous rock cooled quickly above ground, and has a texture with small crystals or no visible crystals.
Granite intrusive, large crystals, usually pink, gray, black, white
Obsidian dark colored volcanic glass
Basalt extrusive, black rock, not shiny
Pumice extrusive, usually gray, lots of vesicles, floats
Sedimentary rock rocks created from sediment. Determined by the source of the sediment, the way the sediment was moved, and the conditions under which it was deposited.
Compaction the process in which the volume and porosity of the sediment is decreased by the weight of the overlying sediments.
Cementation the process in which minerals precipitate into pore spaces between sediment grains and bind sediments together to form rock.
Chemical sedimentary rocks sedimentary rock that forms when minerals precipitate from a solution or settle from a suspension. (ex: halite and gypsum)
Organic sedimentary rocks sedimentary rock that forms from the remains of plants or animals. (ex: coal and limestone)
Clastic sedimentary rocks sedimentary rock that forms when fragments of preexisting rocks are compacted and cemented together. (ex: shale, sandstone, conglomerate, breccia)
Sorting: the tendency for currents of air or water to separate sediments according to size. Sediment becomes well sorted after being transported a greater distance.
Angularity how jagged or smooth the edges of a rock or sediment particle are. When a rock fragment first breaks off of a larger rock, it is very jagged or angular. After it has been transported by wind or water, the fragment becomes less angular and more rounded.
Limestone: organic, usually white-gray, often contains fossils, reacts with acid
Shale: clastic, made of silt/mud, usually black, thin pieces
Sandstone: clastic, made of sand, usually light in color
Conglomerate (ex. Pudding stone): clastic, made of rounded pebbles embedded in a silt/sand matrix
Contact metamorphism a change in the texture, structure, or chemical composition of a rock due to contact with magma.
Regional metamorphism a change in the texture, structure, or chemical composition of a rock due to changes in temperature and pressure over a large area, generally as a result of tectonic forces.
Foliated: metamorphic rock texture in which mineral grains are arranged in planes or bands.
Non-foliated metamorphic rock texture in which mineral grains are not arranged in planes or bands.
Slate: foliated, black, metamorphic version of shale.
Schist: foliated, looks like a triscuit cracker, light colors
Gneiss: foliated, black and white bands
Marble non-foliated, usually white or gray, reacts with acid, metamorphic version of limestone.
Created by: 801479