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biology midterm

"I" change it; tested variable independent variable
changed in response to IV dependent variable
everything that is kept the same control group
What are the characteristics of living things? 1. contain cells 2. Use and transform energy(food, sunlight) 3. grow and change over time(evolution) 4. reproduce 5. respond to a stimulus (something that causes change) 6. homeostasis 7. contain genetic material-DNA
define homeostasis stable internal environment ex. temperature
2 or more organs that work together to perform a function organ system
group of tissues that work together organ
group of similar cells that work together for a specialized function tissues
most basic unit of life cell
What is the correct order of the following? tissue, cell, organ system, organ cell, tissue, organ, organ system
process where cells become specialized cell differentiation/ cellular specialization
function of nucleus holds hereditary material(DNA) and coordinated cell activities
function of mitochondria produce energy for the cell
function of rough ER send off proteins
function of Golgi Apparatus modifies, sorts, and packages proteins
function of ribosome makes proteins
function of cell membrane decides whether to let certain things in it out of the cell
function of nuclear envelope protection for nucleus
function of vacuole storage
function of cytoplasm contains all organelles
function of centriole helps with the formation of spindle fibers
function of lysosome removes wastes
function of cilia and flagella help move liquid past the surface of the cell
What are the 4 main macromolecules and their monomers? Carbohydrates-C,H,O; Lipids-C,H,O; Proteins-C,H,O,N; Nucleic Acids-C,H,O,N,P
What is the function of carbohydrates? energy sources
What is the function of lipids? used for cell membranes(phospholipid), long term energy storage(fat), or protective coverings(waxes)
What is the function of nucleic acids? genetic info
What is the function of proteins? many function as enzymes; DNA code for the making of protein
define prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells prokaryotic- no nucleus eukaryotic- nucleus
What is an example of a prokaryotic cell? Bacteria cell
What is an example of a eukaryotic cell? human cell
low to high concentration; uses energy(ATP); must use protein channels or vesicles Active transport
high to low concentration; uses no energy passive transport
molecules pass directly through the membrane; passive diffusion
must pass through a protein channel; passive facilitated diffusion
speed up chemical reactions but don't get used up in the process; protein molecules that work as catalysts enzymes
What is hypotonic and what would happen to a cell if placed in this solution? below strength; cell would possible burst (lyse)
What is hypertonic and what would happen to a cell if placed in this solution? above strength; cell will shrink
What is isotonic and what would happen to a cell if placed in this solution? water keeps moving in equal movements; nothing
What is osmosis? the movement of water toward areas of higher concentration
What is equilibrium? the ultimate goal of passive transport
What is ATP? an energy source for transportation in and out of cells
produces identical daughter cells, no genetic variation, one parent; What type of organisms go through this? asexual reproduction; bacteria
produces different daughter cells; two parents; What type of organisms go through this? sexual reproduction; humans
uncontrolled cell growth; cells divide more often; some cells can break away and move into blood; cells are dangerous cancer
can become any type of cell stem cells
What are the differences between adult stem cells and embryonic stem cells? adult stem cells-multipotent; limited to types of cells embryonic stem cells- pluripotent; can become any type of cell
What is DNA and what does it look like? deoxyribonucleic acid, determines your traits, heritable, part of Central Dogma; long polymer made up of nucleotides
What is RNA and what does it look like? ribonucleic acid, carries out the formation of proteins whose codes are found on DNA; single stranded
What are the four bases in DNA and what do they pair up with? Adenine-Thymine Cytosine-Guanine
What are the four bases in RNA and what do they pair up with? Adenine-Uracil Cytosine-Guanine
What are the main enzymes used in DNA replication? polymerase and helicase
What 3 components make up a nucleotide? phosphate, sugar, and nitrogen base
receives codes from DNA and serves as the pattern for protein synthesis(contains codons) mRNA (messenger RNA)
carries the amino acid to the ribosome and matches (base pairs) with mRNA (contains anticondons) tRNA (transfer)
makes up the ribosomes where proteins are made rRNA(ribosomal)
What is transcription and where does it take place? the process when DNA is replicated; nucleus
What is translation and where does it take place? the process that creates a protein; ribosome
What are diploid cells? full set of chromosomes; (2n)=46
What are haploid cells? half of the needed chromosomes; (n)=23
physical appearance phenotype
combination of alleles genotype
not related to sex of organism autosomes
determine gender sex linked chromosomes
What are viruses made of? proteins, nucleic acids, and sometimes lipids
How do viruses reproduce? by infecting living cells
What are the cycles related to viral reproduction? lytic cycle and lysogenic cycle
How can you prevent the spread of viruses? physical removal, disinfectants, food storage, food processing, and sterilization by heat
What are vaccines and how do they work? preparation of weakened or killed pathogens or inactivated toxins; they strengthen the immune system to prevent the disease
What are bacteria made of? cell walls, flagella
How do bacteria reproduce? binary fission
How can you treat a bacterial infection? antibiotics
Created by: colorguard101
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