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Chapter 20

DNA Tools and Biotechnology

biotechnology the manipulation of organisms or their components to make useful products
nucleic acid hybridization the base pairing of one strand of a nucleic acid to a complementary sequence on a strand from a different nucleic acid molecule
genetic engineering the direct manipulation of genes for practical purposes
DNA Sequencing the DNA first cut into fragments, and then each fragment is sequenced
Next-generation sequencing (Steps 1-4) - DNA is fragmented -Fragments are isolated from aqueous solution -PCR copy, using template strand -bead placed into small well with DNA Polymerase & primers to hybridize 3' strand
Next-generation sequencing (Steps 5-8) - Different sequenced DNA fragments -nucleotide joins growing strand -nucleotide is washed off and a different nucleotide is added - washes are repeated; reveals sequence;completed complementary strand
DNA cloning preparing well-defined segments of DNA in multiple identical copies
plasmids small,circular DNA molecules that are replicated
recombinant DNA a molecule containing DNA from two different sources, very often different species
gene cloning the production of multiple copies of a single gene is a type of DNA cloning
cloning vector DNA molecule that can carry foreign DNA into a host cell and be replicated there.
What are two purposes of gene cloning? to make many copies of, or amplify a particular gene and to produce a protein product from it.
What are the four steps to Gene cloning? - Gene inserted into plasmid (vector) -Plasmid in bacterial cell - Host cell cultures clone of cells with gene of interest - applications
what do restriction enzymes protect? bacterial cell by cutting up foreign DNA from other organisms or phages
Using restriction enzyme and DNA ligase to make recombinant DNA plasmid -restriction enzyme cuts sugar phosphate backbones at each arrow -DNA fragment from other sources are added. Base pairing of sticky ends produces various combinations - DNA ligase seals the strands
The key to the high specificity is the pair of __ used for each PCR amplification primers
stem cell relatively unspecialized cell that can both reproduce itself indefinitely and, under appropriate conditions, differentiate into specialized cells of one or more types
Created by: savepeople
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