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Stack #29314

Prentice Hall Science Explorer, Earth Science - Weathering and Soil Formation

weathering breaking down of rock and other substances at Earth's surface
erosion Movement of rock particles by wind, water, ice, or gravity.
mechanical weathering The type of weathering in which rock is physically broken into smaller pieces:
permeable characteristic of materials such as sand and gravel that allow water to pass easily through them
bedrock the solid layers of rock beneath the soil
humus dark colored organic material in the soil
soil horizon a layer of soil that differs in color and texture from the layers above or below it
topsoil a mixture of humus, clay and other minerals that form the crumbly, top most layer of soil
subsoil The layer of soil beneath the topsoil that contains mostly clay and other minerals
decomposers An organism that breaks down waste and other organisms.
development The construction of buildings,roads, dams and areas that previously were fertile
desertification The advance of desert-like conditions into areas that previously were fertile.
sod A thick of mass of grass roots and soil.
Dust Bowl The area of Great Plains where wind erosion caused soil loss during the 1930's.
soil conservation The management of soil to prevent its' destruction
conservation plowing Soil conservation method in which the dead stalks are left in the ground to hold the soil in place.
fallow left unplanted with crops
crop rotation the planting of different crops in a field each year
land reclamation The process of restoring land to a more natural, productive state.
Two types of weathering chemical and mechanical
List the forces of mechanical weathering: freezing and thawing; release of pressure; growth of plants; actions of animals; abrasion
abrasion the grinding of rock by rock particles carried by water, ice, wind, or gravity
ice wedging a process by which water seeps into cracks, there is freeze and thaw, ice widens the cracks and pieces break off
chemical weather the process that breaks down rock through chemical changes
The agents of chemical weathering water; oxygen; carbon dioxide; living organisms; acid rain
Chemical weathering produces rock particles with the same mineral makeup as the rock they came from. T or F? false
Two kinds of rock which are easily weathered by carbonic acid. marble; limestone
How do plants disolve rock? roots push into cracks in the rock; as they grow they produce weak acids that slowly dissolve the rock.
Chemical weathering accelerates in heat. T or F? True
Two factors that determine the type of rock particles and minerals in a soil? the content of the bedrock which was weathered; the type of weathering
Three types of weathered rock particles found in soil: sand; silt; clay
list four types of soil paricles from largest to smallest gravel, sand, silt, clay
weathered rock soil that is made up of about equal parts of clay, sand, and silt
soil formation is faster in areas that are dry. T or F? false
Soil formation is faster with limestone that grantie? T or F? true
they mix, make spaces for air and water and some make humus (making soil ferite). soil organisms
Animals contribute most of the organic remains that form humus. T or F? false
formed as plants shed leaves, forming a loose layer litter
The main soil decomposers fungi; protists; bacteria; worms
Earthworms do most of the work of mixing humus with other materials in soil? T or F? true
The improve soil by breaking up hard, compact soils and mix humus; they add nitrogen to the soil and organic material when they die. burrowing mammals
The method by which scientists classify the different types of coil into groups (blank)
leaves previous crop in the ground to hold soil in place conservation plowing
varies crops in order to use fewer nutrients or to restore nutrients to soil crop rotation
helps slow runoff of excess rainfall and prevents it from washing away contour plowing
blocks the wind and traps eroding soil planting windbreaks
municipal solid waste All waste materials produced in homes, businesses and other places within a community
three ways to handle SOLID waste bury; burn; recycle
polluted liquid from a landfill (blank)
Well-designed sanitary landfills cannot pollute groundwater. T or F? false
the burning of solid waste incineration
process of reclaiming raw materials and reusing them recycling
four major categories of products involved in most recycling metal; glass; paper and plastic
Recycling glass is difficult and expensive. T or F? False
three actions individuals can take to help control the solid waste problem reduce; reuse; recycle
Created by: elena93