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True or False: One function of roots is to absorb water and nutrients. True
How do roots accomplish getting nutrients for the plant? They have a large surface area. They divide into finer and finer rootlets they get a fibrous appearance and are covered in root hairs.
How does most absorption of water and nutrients take place? Most absorption of water and nutrients takes place through the cell walls of root hairs. Water and nutrients are moved from the root hairs into vascular tissues that transport them to the stem.
True or False: Roots play an important role in reducing soil erosion. True.
What does the shoot of a plant include? It includes the stem, leaves and organs associated with reproduction, such as flowers and fruit.
What is the role of the stem? Are they positively or negatively phototropic? The role of the stem is to provide structural support for leaves. Positively phototropic.
What is the leaf's primary role in a plant? A leaf is the primary plant structure used in photosynthesis.
In general, what are the two main parts of a leaf? A stalk or petiole that extends from the node of the stem, and a blade or lamina.
Which of these may not be used in leaf arrangement: opposite one another, alternately, vertically, in whorls, or rosettes. Vertically. Leaves may be arranged opposite one another, alternately, in whorls, or rosettes. Leaves of plants are usually arranged in a mosaic so that the most light can be intercepted.
Where are chloroplasts most abundant? Chloroplasts are most abundant in leaves, because these are the main organs of photosynthesis in most terrestrial plants.
What is the outer layer of transparent cells called in leaves? What is its function? The outer layer of transparent cells is called the epidermis. The epidermis protects a lower layer of cells, called the palisade mesophyll layer.
How does most carbon dioxide enter the leaf? Most carbon dioxide enters through pores in the leaf called stomata. Most plants carry them on the underside of the leaf.
What does each stoma consist of? Each stoma consists of a pore surrounded by two crescent-shaped cells, called guard cells. The function of the guard cells is to open and close the pore. The guard cells have cell walls that are unevenly thickened and they contain chloroplasts.
What is the function of stomata? The function of stomata is to allow the entry of carbon dioxide but control water loss from the plant.
How is water lost from a plant? Transpiration. In many plants the stomata are opened when it is light and closed at night. This reduces water loss when the plant is not photosynthesizing.
How do guard cells open pores? By an increase in osmotic pressure in the guard cells. The guard cells absorb water from surrounding epidermal cells. They take up water and become turgid. Because of their shape and cell wall structure this increase in cell volume opens the pore.
What conditions does it take to open and close stomata? Stomata open in conditions of low internal carbon dioxide concentrations, high light intensity, and high humidity. Stomata close in conditions of high internal carbon dioxide concentrations, darkness, and excessive water-loss.
What two ways does water travel up the roots? Pressure from below—root pressure—pushes water up the shoot. Evaporation from the leaves (transpiration) pulls water up the stem.
True or False: Plants do not adjust to their environment. False.
What are nutrients that an organism cannot live without called? Essential Nutrients. Nutrients required in large quantities are called macronutrients. Those nutrients that are needed in tiny amounts are called micronutrients.
What are some primary macronutrients? Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium are primary macronutrients.
What are some secondary macronutrients? Calcium, sulfur, and magnesium are secondary macronutrients that plants need in lesser amounts than primary macronutrients. Silicon may also be included, but is not needed by most plants.
True or False: Plants can absorb elemental sulfur. False, plants cannot absorb elemental sulfur.
What is a cofactor? A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound that is bound to an enzyme and is needed for the enzyme to work. Cofactors are "helper molecules" that assist in biochemical reactions.
What are some micronutrients? Plant micronutrients include boron, copper, chlorine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, and zinc.
How do non-vascular plants absorb nutrients? Non-vascular plants such as mosses and liverworts absorb nutrients and water directly into their cells through diffusion.
How does water enter through the cell wall of a root hair? Through osmosis.
How does xylem get water up to the top of the plant? Either through root pressure, capillary action, or cohesion-tension.
Explain root-pressure. Root pressure is caused by the accumulation of water in the xylem. Root pressure pushes water up the stem. The maximum distance it can raise water is only a few meters
Explain capillary action. Capillary action results from the molecular attraction between water molecules and other surfaces. However, it can only lift water about one meter.
Explain cohesion-tension theory. Water is pulled up the plant by evaporation at the leaves. The hydrogen bonding in water holds together the column of water. The water is pulled up from the roots.
In vascular plants, how is nutrient transport completed? The xylem and phloem. Xylem is primarily responsible for the movement of water and mineral nutrients. Phloem is responsible for moving sugars and other complex compounds around the plant.
What is the main differences between xylem and phloem transportation? They both use tubes, but phloem tubes remain alive.
What does asexual reproduction result in? What are the 2 types of asexual reproduction in plants? Asexual reproduction results in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent. It is based on mitosis. The 2 types are vegetative propagation and apomixis.
Explain vegetative propagation. Takes place without any seeds or spores. In this form of reproduction, a part of the plant is removed and simply grows into an entirely new individual.
What are the two main ways leaves reproduce? The simplest occurs when a leaf falls or is blown some distance. The leaf may produce roots and a shoot. Other plants grow small plantlets around the edges of their leaves. When these mature, they drop off and can grow into new plants.
What are some advantages of vegetative propagation? Plants can rapidly occupy vacant habitat using horizontal stems. Underground structures are protected from surface conditions such as grazing, cropping, or fire that may wipe out the above ground plant structures. Provides nutrients.
What is the downside to vegetative propagation? The downside of vegetative propagation is that it results in offspring that are genetically identical. Disease agents that infect a parent plant are more likely to infect its clone.
Explain apomixis. It's a reproductive process in which a plant’s ovule rises to its own embryo. The ovule is the structure inside a seed plant that contains the female gametophyte. The ovule matures into a seed on its own, and there is no direct mixing of sperm and egg.
What are the two stages of a plant's life cycle? They have a diploid stage called a sporophyte (2n) and a haploid phase, a gametophyte (1n). This type of life cycle is said to have two alternating generations.
What are flowers? Flowers are the reproductive organs of flowering plants. Flowers are shoots modified to produce gametophytes that will, in turn, produce gametes.
When are flowers developed? At some time in the sporophyte stage of a flowering plant’s life cycle, the plant develops flowers. The production of flowers is usually determined by the length of daylight. This phenomenon is called phototropism.
What are the 4 parts of flowers? Stamens, carpels, petals, and sepals.
Is the stamen male or female? Male. Stamens produce pollen grains.
The anther produces and stores pollen. By what process is pollen produced? Meiosis. A single mature pollen grain contains two cells. One of these cells will later divide to make sperm. The other cell becomes the tube cell. The tube cell is involved in the fertilization process.
Is the carpel male or female? What are the three parts? Female. The carpel has three parts: a style, stigma, and ovary.
Where are the female gametophytes produced? The ovary. They're produced in ovules. Meiosis occurs inside the diploid ovule, producing four haploid megaspores (1n). Only one of these divides by mitosis, producing a female gametophyte, called an embryo sac. An egg (1n) develops inside the embryo sac.
Why are petals brightly colored and scented? Many flowers have brightly colored and scented petals that have evolved to attract pollinators.
In what case do petals not need to attract pollinators? Plants that are wind pollinated, such as grasses and many trees, do not need to attract pollinators. Their petals are usually small and green, or may be absent altogether. They do not produce nectar.
What are sepals? Sepals are small, leaf-like structures that surround and protect the flower bud before it opens. When the flower opens, they may fall off or form a ring around the base of the opened petals called a calyx.
What is pollination? The movement of pollen from an anther to a stigma is called pollination. Once it reaches a stigma of a flower of the same species, it develops a pollen tube. It grows down the style to the ovary. Sperm then fertilize the egg inside the ovary.
Explain self-pollination. Pollen transferred from an anther to a stigma in the same flower or to a stigma in another flower on the same plant.
Explain cross-pollination (outcrossing). Pollen transferred from the anther of one flower to the stigma of a flower on another plant of the same species.
True or False: most plants are polyecious. False, most plants are monoecious. Individuals that carry flowers that have both carpels and stamens.
True or False: wind pollination is less targeted than animal pollination. True. Wind-pollinated plants rely on producing large amounts of pollen, a small amount of which will be blown to the stigma of a plant of the same species.
What must happen for fertilization to take place? For fertilization to take place, the sperm in the pollen grain must fuse with the ovum in the ovule. Upon landing on the stigma of a flower of the same species, the pollen grain germinates. The 2 sperm fertilize the egg and the female gametophyte.
What is the first stage of the sporophyte generation? Fertilization.
Explain the fruit of a plant. The fruit is the part of a plant that develops from a fertilized ovary. Fruits contain the seeds. Fruits are how most flowering plants protect and disperse seeds.
When do seed begin to develop? In flowering plants, seeds begin to develop after the ovule has been fertilized.
What develops into seeds? What develops into fruit? As the ovules develop into seeds, the ovary develops into a fruit.
What does a seed consist of? A seed consists of a tough seed coat, or testa, that surrounds and protects its contents. Inside the testa is the embryo. The embryo consists of a plumule, a radicle, and cotyledons.
What are the 2 main types of fruits? Dehiscent and nondehiscent. Dehiscent fruits liberate the seeds by opening the fruit as it stays attached to the parent plant. Nondehiscent fruits and their seeds are dispersed together.
What are the methods of seed dispersal? The mechanisms for seed dispersal include wind, animals, water, and self-dispersal.
What are the methods by animal dispersion? Animals that eat the fruit may discard the seeds or pass them through their digestive systems. In the latter situation, the seeds emerge from the gut with their own ready-made fertilizer.
After seed dispersion what happens? Once dispersed, a seed may germinate. This doesn't have to happen immediately.
What does germination require? Germination requires the presence of water, warmth, and oxygen. Germination begins with the absorption of water by the seed.
How do most roots and stems grow? Cell division near their tips. These areas of cell division are called meristems.
What properties of light affect plant growth? Quality, intensity, and duration, may affect plant growth.
What does quality of light refer to? Color or wavelength. Sunlight consists of visible light, infrared light (IR), and ultraviolet light (UV). Light within the range of 400 to 700 nanometers encompasses all visible light and a small amount of IR and UV wavelengths. This range is imperative.
What does light intensity refer to? More intense light increases the rate of photosynthesis, light that is too intense can actually damage plant structures, drying them out or burning them.
What does duration of light refer to? It refers to the amount of time that a plant is exposed to sunlight relative to the amount of time it is exposed to darkness. Different plants require unique photoperiods for optimal growth.
Explain tropism. The directional growth of plants in response to environmental cues.
Explain phototropism. Growth in response to light.
True or False: Light falling on the plant reduces the amount of the auxin in its cells. True. Cells that get the least light contain more auxin. Auxin makes these cells grow longer.
Explain heliotropism. Tendency of a flower to turn towards the Sun.
Explain photonasty. Flowers that close at night to protect themselves from the cold.
Explain gravitropism. Gravitropism (also called geotropism) describes the way in which a plant grows in response to gravity. The stems of plants grow upward, called negative gravitropism, and roots grow downward, called positive gravitropism.
What do high levels of auxin cause? High levels of auxin cause shoot cells to expand and grow upward. Root tips also sense gravity and produce auxin, but instead of promoting cell expansion, auxin inhibits root cell expansion.
Explain thigmotropism. A plant’s sensitivity and response to physical touch. Thigmotropism results in uneven plant growth in response to physical contact with solid objects in the environment.
Created by: JustEmma



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