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Cell Biology LO1

Ayrshire College 18/19 HNC Cell Biology LO1 - Taught by Julie

QuestionAnswer
Define the term 'Selectively Permeable' when describing the membrane It only allows certain molecules to cross the membrane, e.g. Useful nutrients enter the cell & harmful waste products leave the cell.
Name the 3 cellular processes that the cell membrane is involved in Cell Adhesion Ion Conductivity Cell signalling
What are the two main functions of the Cell membrane? To control movement of substances in and out of the cell & to protect the cell from its surroundings
Name two Eukaryotic organelles that are MADE UP OF membrane Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi Apparatus
Name some Eukaryotic organelles that are ENVELOPED BY membrane Nucleus Mitochondria Chloroplasts Ribosomes etc.
What are the two types of molecules that make up the cell membrane? Lipids and Proteins
What are the three types of Lipids that are found in the cell membrane? Phospholipids, Sphingolipids and Cholesterol
How do molecules diffuse in the lipid 2-D liquid Bi-layer? Laterally (Side-to-side)
When describing the cell membrane, what do we mean when we say that it is 'Asymmetric'? There are different molecules present at either side of the membrane.
Name the components of a typical Phospholipid An organic group, a phosphate, a glycerol & two fatty acid tails
Which carbon of the Glycerol in a Phospholipid is Phosphate attached to? Carbon 3
What carbons of the Glycerol in a Phospholipid are the two fatty acid tails attached to? Carbon 1 & 2
What type of bond attaches the two fatty acid tails to the Glycerol in a Phospholipid? Esther Bond
Define the term 'Amphipathic' To display affinity for both polar and non-polar molecules
What does 'Hydrophobic' mean? Water hating/Non-Polar
What does 'Hydrophilic' mean? Water loving/Polar
How many Carbon to Carbon double bonds are present in a Saturated fatty acid tail? None
How many Carbon to Carbon double bonds are present in an Unsaturated fatty acid tail? At least one
Name the components of a typical Sphingolipid Sphingosine, an organic group & a fatty acid tail
What molecule is the backbone of a Sphingolipid? Sphingosine
What is the most common type of Sphingolipid in the the human body? Sphingomyelin
Describe the general structure of Cholesterol It has four rings of Carbon atoms. Three of the rings are made with six carbons, whilst the last is made with 5 carbons. The rings are attached to a Hydrocarbon chain.
What is Cholesterol a precursor of? Steroid Hormones such as Progesterone and Testosterone Bile Acids
How does Cholesterol affect membrane fluidity at high temperatures? At high temperatures, Cholesterol stabilises the membrane, therefore reducing membrane fluidity/increasing viscosity
How does Cholesterol affect membrane fluidity at low temperatures? At low temperatures, Cholesterol intercalates between the lipid molecules to prevent clustering, therefore increasing membrane fluidity/reducing viscosity
How do Saturated fatty acid tails affect membrane fluidity? As the tails are straight, they can pack very tightly together, therefore maximising hydrophobic interactions between the fatty acid tails and reducing membrane fluidity.
How does the length of a fatty acid tail affect membrane fluidity? The longer the fatty acid tails are, the more surface area for hydrophobic interactions to occur, meaning that the membrane is likely to be less fluid/more viscous.
How do Unsaturated fatty acid tails affect membrane fluidity? These tails have at least 1 carbon to carbon double bond, creating a kink, preventing the lipid molecules from packing tightly together. As they aren't as tightly packed, there's less hydrophobic interactions, resulting in increased membrane fluidity.
Why is it important to maintain membrane fluidity? So the cell can assume a variety of shapes So the membrane can be repaired For the efficient transport of materials in and out of the cell
What are the three types of membrane proteins? Integral Proteins, Peripheral Proteins and Lipid anchored Proteins
Name an example of an Integral protein. Ion Channels
Name an example of a Peripheral protein Some enzymes
Name an example of a Lipid anchored protein G-Proteins
Created by: kiera.taylor