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Semester 1 Vocabular

TermDefinition
Conduction The process by which energy is transferred from a warmer object to a cooler object by physical contact.
Convection motion in a gas (as air) or a liquid in which the warmer portions rise and the colder portions sink.
Heat energy that is transferred from a warmer object to a cooler object.
Precipitation any type of liquid or solid water that falls to Earth surface, such as rain, snow or hail.
Radiation the emission of energy as electromagnetic waves
Temperature the degree or intensity of heat present in a substance or object
thermal energy the energy an object has due to the motion of its particles.
thermal expansion the general increase in the volume of a material as its temperature is increased.
Weather the condition of Earth's atmosphere at a particular time and place.
Wind the horizontal movement of air caused by differences in air pressure.
chemical weathering The chemical breakdown and decomposition of rocks by natural processes in the environment.
Coastline A location where land and ocean surface meet.
Delta A mass of material deposited in a triangular or fan shape at the mouth of a river or stream.
deposition The process in which material is laid down.
dune A mound of wind
erosion The process by which wind, water, ice, or gravity transports soil and sediment from one location to another.
glacier A large mass of ice that exists year round and moves over land.
ice wedging water in the ground freezes and expands causing a crack in the ground.
lake A filled or partially filled basin of fresh or salt water surrounded by land.
physical weathering The mechanical breakdown of rocks into smaller pieces that is caused by natural processes and that does not change the chemical composition of the rock material.
river A large natural stream of water that flows across land surfaces within a Channel.
air pressure The measure of force with which air molecules push on a surface.
atmosphere Mixture of mostly invisible gases.
biosphere Made up of living things on Earth.
cryosphere Made up of all the frozen water on Earth.
geosphere Mostly solid, rocky part of Earth.
greenhouse effect The warming of the surface and lower atmosphere of Earth that occurs when water vapor, carbon dioxide, and other gases absorb and reradiate thermal energy.
hydrosphere Part of Earth that is liquid water.
matter Anything that has mass and takes up space.
system a group of related parts that make up a whole.
Stratosphere Temperature INCREASES as altitude increases. Many jet aircrafts fly in this layer. The ozone in the stratosphere protects us from ultraviolet radiation.
Thermosphere Temperature INCREASES as altitude increases. This is where the space shuttle orbits. The aurora borealis occurs in this layer.
Mesosphere Temperature DECREASES as altitude increases. Mesosphere protects Earth from meteors. This is the coldest layer.
Troposphere Temperature DECREASES as altitude increases. Most weather occurs here.
Applied Force A force typical push or pull, pushing a door open, pulling a rope.
Friction Happens when two objects rub against each other. Friction opposes motion
Normal Force For example, if a book is resting upon a surface, then the surface is exerting an upward force upon the book in order to support the weight of the book.
Air Resistance The air resistance is a type of frictional force that acts upon objects as they travel through the air.
Contact Force A force that can cause or change motion of an object by touching it.
Non Contact Force
Magnetic Force A kind of non
Electric Force Non
Gravitational Force The force of attraction between any two objects in the universe.
Energy the ability to do work
Law of Conservation of Energy is NEVER created or destroyed, it can only be STORED or TRANSFERRED.
Potential Energy The energy stored in an object.
Kinetic Energy The energy of a moving object.
experiment An organized procedure to study something under controlled conditions is called:
hypothesis A testable idea or explanation that leads to scientific investigation based on prior knowledge is known as:
theory The statement based on repeated experimental observations that describe why the universe works under certain conditions
scientific law The statement based on repeated experimental observations that describe how the universe works under certain conditions.
control group The group in the experiment used as a baseline because nothing is different from its normal state
dependent variable The variable that is measured for change. The variable that is affected by the independent variable
test (independent) variable The variable that is changed. The variable that causes the change
valid When something is supported by evidence that is reliable and relevant
Created by: missguitard