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Envi Sci. Midterm

Mid-term review for 12/18

What is a habitat? It is the place where an organism lives. It has the specific characteristics needed by the organisms living there.
What are biotic factors? They are the environmental factors that are living or were once living. Examples; cats, mice, rotting log
What are abiotic factors? These are all of the non-living environmental factors. Examples; rocks, air, water..
What is an organism? These are the smallest things that can carry out life processes independently.
What is a species? This is a group of the SAME TYPE of organism. They are able to reproduce fertile offspring. For example; hedgehogs.
What is a population? This is a group of organisms of the same species that live in the SAME place. For example; all of the jaguars in a specific area.
Define community. Groups of MULTIPLE DIFFERRENT species that live in the same habitat . Example ; all of the frogs, mice and cats that live in an area.
Ecosytem, what is it? They are communities of organisms and their abiotic environment. Example; pond, forest, ocean, rainforest
What is natural selection? This is a process in which individuals with FAVORABLE characteristics are better able to survive in an environment.
Explain evolution. Evolution is the changes in the charactersistics of a population over time.
Define adaptation Adaptation refers to the ability of a species to adapt to their physical surroundings, improving their ability to survive. For ex; Deer with thicker fur will survive better in the cold.
What is coevolution? This occurs when two organisms evolve together due to long term interactions with each other. They develop traits that benefit both organisms.
Define artificial selection. This is SELECTIVE breeding of organisms to obtain beneficial traits. For example: Selecting the best horses only to breed.
What is resistance? It is the ability of of an organism to tolerate chemicals. For example; people become resistant to antibiotics and bugs could become resistant to spray.
What is bacteria? Bacteria can break down remains and wastes of other organisms and return the nutrients to the soil.
What is archaebacteria? These are single celled organisms that live in harsh environments like swampy , watery, marsh areas.
What is eubacteria? These are single celled organisms found in soil or in the human body.
What is a protist? These are single-celled microscopic organisms. Common examples; kelp or algae.
What is fungi? They are organisms that have nuclei and cell walls. Some can cause disease, but others add flavor to food. They can also break down dead materials and release nutrients into the soil. Examples; yeast, blue cheese, mushrooms.
Explain what a plant is. They are organisms that make their own food by using energy from the sun! Leaves and roots contain vascular tissue which carries the water and food.
What is a cell wall? This is a rigid structure that acts like a mini-skeleton.
Vertebrates are..... Organisms with a backbone; horses, girrafes, 11th graders.
Invertebrates are..... Organisms with no backbone; centipede, mealworm, Squidwird from SpongeBob Squarepants
What is an angiopserm? A flowering plant.
What is a gymnosperm? A woody vascular plant that is common source of lumber and paper.
Which two organisms break down dead organisms? Fungi and bacteria.
What is an invasive species? A harmful , non-native species that takes away resources from the organisms that already live in that habitat.
How do invasive species spread? They spread through travel, commerce, even the wind!
What are the levels of organization in an ecosytem from smallest to largest? organism, species, population, community , ecosytem...
Created by: gebs31
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