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Nutrition vocab

Vocabulary words #4

TermDefinition
Calories the energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water through 1 °C, equal to one thousand small calories and often used to measure the energy value of foods.
Chemosynthesis the synthesis of organic compounds by bacteria or other living organisms using energy derived from reactions involving inorganic chemicals, typically in the absence of sunlight.
Energy -the strength and vitality required for sustained physical or mental activity
Ingestion the process of taking food, drink, or another substance into the body by swallowing or absorbing it.
Absorption the process or action by which one thing absorbs or is absorbed by another.
Bulimia an emotional disorder involving distortion of body image and an obsessive desire to lose weight, in which bouts of extreme overeating are followed by depression and self-induced vomiting, purging, or fasting.
Anorexia- a lack or loss of appetite for food
Digestion he process of breaking down food by mechanical and enzymatic action in the alimentary canal into substances that can be used by the body.
Peristalsis he involuntary constriction and relaxation of the muscles of the intestine or another canal, creating wavelike movements that push the contents of the canal forward.
Cellulose an insoluble substance that is the main constituent of plant cell walls and of vegetable fibers such as cotton. It is a polysaccharide consisting of chains of glucose monomers.
Capillary any of the fine branching blood vessels that form a network between the arterioles and venules
Villi One of the fingerlike projections of the chorion that contribute to the formation of the placenta in mammals.
Roughage fibrous indigestible material in vegetable foodstuffs that aids the passage of food and waste products through the gut.
Egestion is the discharge or expulsion of undigested material (food) from a cell in case of unicellular organisms, and from the digestive tract via the anus in case of multicellular organisms
Chyme the pulpy acidic fluid that passes from the stomach to the small intestine, consisting of gastric juices and partly digested food
Constipation is a condition of the digestive system where an individual has hard feces that are difficult to expel
Body mass index BMI is a person's weight in kilograms (kg) divided by his or her height in meters squared.
Autotroph An organism capable of synthesizing its own food from inorganic substances, using light or chemical energy.
Emulsification The breakdown of fat globules in the duodenum into tiny droplets, which provides a larger surface area on which the enzyme pancreatic lipase can act to digest the fats into fatty acids and glycerol.
Heterotroph n organism that cannot manufacture its own food and instead obtains its food and energy by taking in organic substances, usually plant or animal matter
Created by: 1012639