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Chapter 15

Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance

P generation specificying seed color; two genes are on different chromosomes
F1 Generation Law of Segregation and Law of Independent Assortment
Law of segregation the two alleles for each gene separate during gamete formation
law of independent assortment alleles of genes on nonhomologous chromosomes assort independently during gamete formation
wild type the phenotype for a character most commonly observed in natural populations
mutant phenotypes traits that are alternatives to the wild type because they are due to alleles assumed to have originated as changes, or mutations in the wild-type allele.
How is sex determined? chromosomes
short segments at either end of the Y chromosome are the only regions that are ___ with regions on the X. homologous
What is required for the development of testes? SRY (sex-determining region of Y)
sex-linked gene a gene located on either sex chromosome
What happens when there are so few Y linked genes? very few disorders are transferred
What gene is required for the female gonads? WNT4 (chromsome 1, an autosome); encodes protein for ovary development
If an X-linked trait is due to recessive allele, a female will express the phenotype only if she is __ for the allele homozygous
barr body the inactive x in each cell of a female condenses into a compact object which lies within nuclear envelope.
if a female is heterozygous for a sex-linked trait, about half of her cells will express one allele while the others will express the __ allele alternate
genetic recombination the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either P generation parent.
What can be genetically unlinked? genes assort indepedently , as if they are on different chromosomes
Large-scale chromosome -affect organisms phenotype -meiosis error -disorders -abortion
What distributes meiotic spindle without error? daughter cells
nondisjunction members of a pair of homologous chromosomes do not move apart properly during meiosis I or sister chromatids fail to seperate during meiosis II.
What happens in nondisjunction? one gamete receives two of the same type of chromosome and another gamete receives no copy
aneuploidy if aberrent gametes unites with a normal one at fertilization, zygote will have an abnormal number of a particular chromosome.
What are the four types of changes that can alter chromsome structure? -deletion -duplication -inversion -translocation
deletion chromosomal fragment is lost
duplication "deleted" fragment may become attached as an extra segment to a sister or nonsister chromatid
inversion chromosomal fragment may reattach to the original chromosome but in the reverse orientation
translocation fragment to join a nonhomologous chromsome, a rearrangement
genomic imprinting such variation in phenotype depending on whether an allele is inherited from the male or female parent
Created by: savepeople
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