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Plant processes

SOL 7.5

TermDefinition
Chloroplast A green pigment in the plant cell that holds chlorophyll and is where photosynthesis takes place.
Photosynthesis the process by which green plants and some other organisms use sunlight to synthesize foods from carbon dioxide and water. Photosynthesis in plants generally involves the green pigment chlorophyll and generates oxygen as a byproduct.
respiration The process of respiration in plants involves using the sugars produced during photosynthesis plus oxygen to produce energy for plant growth. In many ways,respiration is the opposite of photosynthesis. In the natural environment, plants produce their own
stomata Plural form of stoma.
Guard cells each of a pair of curved cells that surround a stoma, becoming larger or smaller according to the pressure within the cells.
Chlorophyll a green pigment, present in all green plants and in cyanobacteria, responsible for the absorption of light to provide energy for photosynthesis. Its molecule contains a magnesium atom held in a porphyrin ring.
light dependant reaction The series of biochemical reactions in photosynthesis that require light energy that is captured by light-absorbing pigments (such as chlorophyll) to be converted into chemical energy in the form of ATP and NADPH. Supplement. The light-dependent reaction
Light independant reaction Light-independent reaction. From Biology-Online Dictionary | Biology-Online Dictionary. Definition. The series of biochemical reactions in photosynthesis that do not require light to proceed, and ultimately produce organic molecules from carbon dioxide.
Energy pyramid An energy pyramid is a graphical model of energy flow in a community. The different levels represent different groups of organisms that might compose a food chain. From the bottom-up, they are as follows: Producers — bring energy from nonliving sources in
producer An independent power producer (IPP) or non-utility generator (NUG) is an entity, which is not a public utility, but which owns facilities to generate electric power for sale to utilities and end users.
mitochondrion an organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur. It has a double membrane, the inner layer being folded inward to form layers
autotrophs an organism that is able to form nutritional organic substances from simple inorganic substances such as carbon dioxide.
consumers a person or thing that eats or uses something
herbivore an animal that feeds on plants.
omnivore an animal or person that eats food of both plant and animal origin.
heterotrophs an organism deriving its nutritional requirements from complex organic substances.
carnivore an animal that feeds on flesh.
decomposer an organism, especially a soil bacterium, fungus, or invertebrate, that decomposes organic material.a device or installation that is used to break down a chemical substance.
spongy layer a layer of loosely packed and irregularly shaped chlorophyll-bearing cells that fills the part of a leaf between the palisade layer and the lower epidermis called also spongy parenchyma, spongy tissue.
palisade layer a layer of parallel elongated cells below the epidermis of a leaf.
raw materials the basic material from which a product is made.
oxygen a colorless, odorless reactive gas, the chemical element of atomic number 8 and the life-supporting component of the air.
Carbon dioxide a colorless, odorless gas produced by burning carbon and organic compounds and by respiration.
glucose a simple sugar that is an important energy source in living organisms and is a component of many carbohydrates.
products In biochemistry, enzymes act as biological catalysts to convert substrate to product.