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Grade 10 Bio:Cells

Cell Theory all living things are made up of one or more cells, they are the basic unit of life, all cells come from pre-existing cells
Cell Cycle interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokines
Mitosis prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase (PMAT)
Interphase DNA is replicated, cell prepares for mitosis
Prophase centrioles move to opposite poles, chromatin condenses into chromosomes, spindle fibres form in between the centrioles, nuclear membrane begins to dissapear
Metaphase Spindle fibres pull chromosomes into a line across the equator
Anaphase Single stranded chromosomes are pulled to opposite poles by contracting spindle fibres
Telophase Two nuclear envelopes form
Cytokenisis Occurs after mitosis, final step of cell division, two daughter cells form
cytoplasm allows organelles to move around
cell wall in plants only, supports cell, protects cell
Nucleus contains DNA
mitochondria powerhouse of the cell, converts stored glucose into energy
endoplasmic reticulim transport protein through cell
golgi bodies collect materials that need to be removed from the cell
Vacuole (plant) one large vacuole, contains substances, maintains internal fluid pressure
Vacuole (animal) Multiple smaller ones, contains and removes unwanted substances, internal fluid pressure
chloroplasts contains chlorophyll, makes plants green
Hierarchy more complex structures at the top and simpler below it
Tissue animals and plants are made of it, consisting of specialised cells
organ part of an organism that has a vital role
organ system group of organs that work together to preform one or more functions
Epithelial tissue covers internal organs (Epidermis)
Muscle Tissue gives body ability to contract and move (bicep)
Connective Tissue connects/support other tissues or organs (cartilage)
Nerve Tissue to recive stimuli and send impulses to brain (spinal cord)
Stem cells cells that can turn into and divide into any cell that is needed
Benign non cancerous/ does not spread
Malignant cancerous/ has not spread yet
Mestatic cancerous/ has spread
Radiation Treatment high energy rays to kill cells
chemotherapy anticancer injection to kill cells
surgery physically removes tumour
Created by: dmolnar