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# NGS1 Sem. 1

### A review of concepts and vocabulary for Semester 1 of NGS1.

A small box with a slit in it. By looking into it you can see the spectrum of a light source that is separated by diffraction. spectroscope
The frequencies of light emitted by a light source. These can indicate the type of elements in the source. spectrum
Light with a range of different frequencies. These span from radio waves to gamma rays. the electromagnetic spectrum
The height of a wave from the middle line to the crest OR from the middle line to the trough. amplitude
The distance from one crest to the next crest OR from one trough to the next trough. wavelength
The number of waves that pass per second. frequency
The wave phenomena which has a wave bounce off a surface. reflection
The wave phenomena whereby waves change speed as they pass from one medium to a different medium. This changes the angle of the waves slightly. refraction
The wave phenomena whereby waves spread out and form interference patterns when they pass through a slit. diffraction
Different frequencies of light interact with matter differently. This causes some light to move in different directions. scattering of light
When a wave source is moving toward an observer, the wave appears to have a higher frequency. The Doppler effect
When a wave source is moving away from an observer, the wave appears to have a lower frequency. The Doppler effect
A graph showing different stars. The vertical axis is the luminosity (brightness) of the star. The horizontal axis is the temperature of the star. H-R diagram
About 13.8 billion years ago the universe started expanding and cooling which led to some energy converting into matter. the big bang
The spectrum of galaxies moving away from us is shifted towards lower frequencies due to the Doppler effect. red shift
Electromagnetic radiation emanating from all directions in the universe which originated from right after the big bang. cosmic microwave background radiation
A star that is fusing hydrogen into helium. Our sun is an example. main sequence star
A vast cloud of gases, dust, and ice in space. nebula
The remains of a high mass star that has underwent a supernova. The gravitation pull is so great that even light cannot escape it. black hole
The remains of a high mass star that has underwent a supernova. The gravitation pull is so great that protons and electrons all combine into neutrons. neutron star
An explosion that occurs at the end of a high mass star's life cycle. The explosion ejects most of the star's mass and has a dramatic increase in emitted light. supernova
The energy source of stars. Energy is released as atomic nuclei merge together to form heavier elements. nuclear fusion
A substance that cannot be chemically broken down into a simpler substance. The type of atom that is found on the periodic table. element
The smallest piece of matter that still retains the properties of its element. atom
The number of protons that an element has. This is usually found at the top of an element's box on the periodic table. atomic number
The weighted average of the number of protons and neutrons of an element. This is usually found at the bottom of an element's box on the periodic table. average atomic mass
The elements on the upper right side of the periodic table - plus hydrogen. nonmetals
The elements on the left side and middle of the periodic table. metals
The elements on the stair step on the right side of the periodic table. metalloids (aka semi-metals)
A particle that is inside an atom and is part of it. These include protons, neutrons, and electrons. subatomic particle
A positively charged particle in the nucleus of an atom. proton
A particle in the nucleus of an atom that has no charge. neutron
A negatively charged particle that moves very quickly around the nucleus of an atom in clouds or orbitals. electron
How strongly an atom holds onto its electrons. It increases as you move up and to the right on the periodic table. electronegativity
The outermost electrons of an atom. The number at the top of the column (ex. Carbon 4A = 4 v.e.) These electrons can be shared or exchanged. valence electrons
A push or a pull. force
How fast something gets faster or how fast it slows down or how fast something changes direction. Also the change in velocity divided by time. Δv / Δt acceleration
The amount of stuff is there in something. It can be measured using a triple beam balance. mass
The sum of multiple forces. Forces in opposite directions will at least partially cancel each other out. net force
A measure of how difficult it is to speed something up or get it to stop. inertia (or Newton's 1st Law)
The acceleration of an object is equal to the net force acting on it divided by its mass. a = Fnet / m Newton's 2nd Law
For every action force there is an equal but opposite reaction force. Newton's 3rd Law
The force of gravity is directly proportional to each of the masses involved and indirectly proportional to the distance squared between them. Newton's law of Universal gravity
The process of growth by gathering material. accretion
A very small object formed from a nebula. The objects has just begun accretion using its weak gravitational pull. planetesimal
A small object formed from a nebula. The object has not yet reached its full (planet) size through accretion. protoplanet
The shape of stable orbits according to Kepler's laws of planetary motion. ellipse
The amount of time it takes for a planet to orbit around its star. orbital period
The furthest point in a planet's orbit from its star. aphelion
The closest point in a planet's orbit from its star. perihelion
The orbital paths of planets have the shape of an ellipse with their star at one of the foci. Kepler's 1st law
For a planet that is orbiting its star, the planet will sweep out equal areas per unit of time whether it is near or far from the star. Kepler's 2nd law
The use of the order of rock layers to determine how old a fossil or rock is. Lower layers are older. Higher layers are younger. relative dating
The use of carbon-14 dating to determine when living things died. Also the use of uranium-238 dating to determine when igneous rocks formed. radioactive dating
The type of bacteria that uses oxygen and need it to survive. aerobic bacteria
The type of bacteria that does not use oxygen and does not need it to survive. anaerobic bacteria
The process whereby a plant (or certain bacteria) will take in water, carbon dioxide, and sunlight and produce glucose (a sugar) and oxygen gas. photosynthesis
About 2.45 billion years ago, early photosynthetic bacteria on Earth produced enough oxygen that it poisons some organisms while other organisms adapted and thrived. Great Oxygenation Event
When two separate organisms exchange genetic material to produce offspring with some genetic variation. sexual reproduction
When an organism produces its offspring by itself with no genetic variation. asexual reproduction
Organisms which have many cells that are specialized and work together to assist the organism as a whole. multi-cellular life
When an organism allows another organism to live inside itself because they both benefit. This happened both with mitochondria and chloroplast. endosymbiosis
A substance with a definite formula (ex. H₂O) made up of more than type of element. compound
A compound in which atoms have lost or gained valence electrons to form positive or negative ions. ionic compound
A compound in which atoms share valence electrons in a kind of constant tug of war. covalent compound
The substances that we start with in a chemical reaction (aka the ingredients). reactants
The substances that are produced by a chemical reaction. products
For a chemical reaction the reactants should have the same mass as the products. The mass should not change. conservation of mass
For a chemical reaction the reactants should be made up of the same type and number of atoms as the products. conservation of atoms
What you are going to do to get ready for the final exam. study
Created by: john.boren