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genetics part 1

genetic terms

TermDefinition
Traits physical characteristics like eye or hair color
Heredity The passing of traits from parents to offspring
Genetics Scientific study of Heredity
Gene factors that control traits (a portion of DNA)
Allele Different forms of a gene (ex. one for short and for tall)
Dominate allele one who's trait always shows up in an organism when the allele is present
Recessive allele One whose trait is masked or covered up when the dominate allele is present
Gregor Mendel Father of genetics
DNA -deoxyribonucleic acid- -a chemical molecule that carries all of the cell’s instructions. Code for life.
Double helix Shape of DNA -looks like a twisted ladder
homozygous or purebred organism that has the same 2 alleles for a trait; always produces offspring with the same form of a trait as the parents (purebred) (GG or gg)
heterozygous or hybrid An organism that has 2 different alleles for trait ; hybrid(Gg)
dominant trait symbol A capital letter
recessive trait sysmbol A lower case letter
number chromosomes in human body cells 46
number of PAIRS of chromosomes in human body cells 23
number of chromosomes in human sex cells 23
sex cell chromosome number always 1/2 the number of chromosomes in the body cells
probability Chance that trait will show up in the offspring
Punnett Square Chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
Phenotype physical appearance or visible trait that you can see expressed in the offspring ( tall or short)
Genotype organism's genetic makeup or allele combination, this you can't see( TT ot Tt or tt)
Created by: science7th
 

 



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